Back
 AD  Vol.3 No.1 , January 2015
Fipa Furnaces and Slag: Distinguishing Criteria Based on Physical Analysis
Abstract: Excavations and ground reconnaissance in December 2009 at Sumbawanga district, in southwestern Tanzania, revealed complete remains of natural draft iron smelting furnaces locally called ilungu (sing.) or malungu (pl.) standing up to 2.8 - 3.1 m tall. The aim of the study was to identify remains of indigenous African iron smelting furnaces on the landscape of Fipaland, examine the slag from the identified furnaces as very little amount of attention has been paid to furnace structures and analysis of the resultant residues. It has been usually studied in isolation of one of the order, while more attention was paid to furnace types; less has been done on slag analysis; in order to make for more reliable identification and develop a criteria for distinguishing this fast disappearing cultural heritage.
Cite this paper: Ngonadi, J. and Eze-Uzomaka, P. (2015) Fipa Furnaces and Slag: Distinguishing Criteria Based on Physical Analysis. Archaeological Discovery, 3, 32-39. doi: 10.4236/ad.2015.31004.
References

[1]   Barndon, R. (2001). Masters of Metallurgy-Masters of Metaphors: Ironworking among the Fipa and Pangwa of Southwestern Tanzania. Bergen: University of Bergen.

[2]   Childs, S. T. (1991). Style, Technology and Iron-Smelting Furnaces in Bantu Speaking Africa. Anthropological Archaeology, 10, 332-359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0278-4165(91)90006-J

[3]   Davison, S., & Mosley, P. N. (1988). Iron-Smelting in the Upper North Rukuru Basin of Northern Malawi. Azania, 23, 57-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00672708809511387

[4]   Greig, R. C. H. (1937). Iron Smelting in Fipa. Tanganyika Notes and Records, 4, 77-81.

[5]   Humphris, J. E., Rehren, T., Charlton, M., Chirikure, S., Ige, A., & Veldhuijzen, H. A. (2007). Decisions Set in Slag: The Human Factor in African Iron Smelting. Metals and Mines: Archaeometallurgy, 211-218.

[6]   Kense, F. J. (1983). Traditional African Iron Working. Calgary: University of Calgary.

[7]   Lechaptois, M. (1913). Aux Rives Du Tanganyika. Algiers: Maison-Carée.

[8]   Mapunda, B. B. B. (1995). An Archaeological View of the History and Variation of Ironworking in Southwestern Tanzania. Ph.D. Thesis, Florida: University of Florida.

[9]   Mapunda, B. B. B. (2003). Fipa Iron Technologies and Their Implied Social History. In C. M. Kusimba, & S. B. Kusimba (Eds.), East African Archaeology: Foragers, Potters, Smiths and Traders. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Museum. http://dx.doi.org/10.9783/9781934536261.71

[10]   Mapunda, B. B. B., (2010). Contemplating the Fipa Iron Working. Kampala: Fountain Publishers.

[11]   Ngonadi, J. U. (2010). Relationship between Furnace Structure and Slag Properties: The Case of Fipa and Nyiha Iron Smelting Technology. MA Dissertation, Dar es Salaam: University of Dar es Salaam.

[12]   Robert, J. M. (1949). Croyances et coutumes magico—Religieuses des Wafipa paiens. Tabora: Tanganyika Mission Press.

[13]   Schmidt, P. R., & Avery, D. H. (1983). More Evidence for an Advanced Prehistoric Iron Technology in Africa. Field Archaeology, 10, 421-434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/009346983791504228

[14]   Wembah-Rashid, J. (1969). Iron Workers of Ufipa. Bulletin of International Committee of Urgent Anthropological Research, 11, 65-72.

[15]   Willis, R. G. (1966). The Fipa and Related Peoples of Southwest Tanzania and Northeast Zambia. London: International African Institute.

[16]   Willis, R. G. (1981). A State in the Making: Myth, History, and Social Transformation in Precolonial Ufipa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

[17]   Wise, R. (1958a). Iron Smelting in Ufipa. Tanganyika Notes and Records, 50, 106-111.

[18]   Wise, R. (1958b). Some Rituals of Iron—Making in Ufipa. Tanganyika Notes and Records, 51, 232-238.

[19]   Wyckaert, A. (1914). Forgerons Paiens et Forgerons Chrétiens Au Tanganyika. Anthropos, 9, 371-380.

 
 
Top