JPEE  Vol.3 No.1 , January 2015
A Comprehensive Analysis of Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicles to Commercial Campus (V2C)
Abstract: Vehicle to grid is an emerging technology that utilizes plug in hybrid electric vehicle batteries to benefit electric utilities during times when the vehicle is parked and connected to the electric grid. In its current form however, vehicle to grid implementation poses many challenges that may not be easily overcome and many existing studies neglect critical aspects such as battery cost or driving profiles. The goal of this research is to ease some of these challenges by examining a vehicle to grid scenario on a university campus, as an example of a commercial campus, based on time of use electricity rates. An analysis of this scenario is conducted on a vehicle battery as well as a stationary battery for comparison. It is found that vehicle to campus and a stationary battery both have the potential to prove economical based on battery cost and electricity rates.
Cite this paper: Clarke, A. and Makram, E. (2015) A Comprehensive Analysis of Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicles to Commercial Campus (V2C). Journal of Power and Energy Engineering, 3, 24-36. doi: 10.4236/jpee.2015.31003.

[1]   Anumolu, P., Banhazl, G., Hilgeman, T. and Pirich, R. (2008) Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles: An Overview and Performance Analysis. 2008 IEEE Long Island Systems, Applications and Technology Conference, Farmingdale, 2 May 2008, 1-4.

[2]   Chevrolet (2014) 2014 Volt: Electric Car—Hybrid Car Chevrolet Web.

[3]   Kisacikoglu, M.C., Ozpineci, B. and Tolbert, L.M. (2010) Examination of a PHEV Bidirectional Charger System for V2G Reactive Power Compensation. 2010 25th Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), Palm Springs, 21-25 February 2010, 458-465.

[4]   Bosch. (2014) Charging Stations Bosch Electric Vehicle Solutions Web.

[5]   Davis, B.M. and Bradley, T.H. (2012) The Efficacy of Electric Vehicle Time-of-Use Rates in Guiding Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Behavior. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 3, 1679-1686.

[6]   Yilmaz, M. and Krein, P.T. (2013) Review of the Impact of Vehicle-to-Grid Technologies on Distribution Systems and Utility Interfaces. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 28, 5673-5689.

[7]   Pang, C., Dutta, P. and Kezunovic, M. (2012) BEVs/PHEVs as Dispersed Energy Storage for V2B Uses in the Smart Grid. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 3, 473-482.

[8]   Das, R., Thirugnanam, K., Kumar, P., Lavudiya, R. and Singh, M. (2014) Mathematical Modeling for Economic Evaluation of Electric Vehicle to Smart Grid Interaction. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 5, 712-721.

[9]   US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administratio (2014) 2009 National Household Travel Survey.

[10]   PG & E (2014) Time-of-Use.

[11]   PPL Electric Utilities (2014) Time-of-Use Rate Option.

[12]   Southern California Edison (2014) Residential Rate Plans.

[13]   Portland General Electric (2014) Time of Use: Pricing.

[14]   Con Edison (2014) Voluntary Time-of-Use.

[15]   NV Energy (2014) Residential Time of Use for Southern Service Territory. Time of Use Rate for Home.

[16]   BGE (2014) Time of Use Pricing.

[17]   Anderson, D. (2009) An Evaluation of Current and Future Costs for Lithium-Ion Batteries for Use in Electrified Vehicle Powertrains. Master’s Thesis, Environmental Management, Duke University, Durham.