IJOHNS  Vol.4 No.1 , January 2015
Hearing Disability in Colombia Self-Perception and Associated Factors 2002-2008
Abstract: Introduction: Hearing disability is a condition that affects normal ear function, as much in adulthood as in the first years of life. According to the 2005 Census, 6.3% of the Colombian population has some type of disability, of which 17.4% have hearing limitations, including those with hearing devices. Elucidating the conditions of this population and identifying the factors related to hearing disability will permit the management of strategies from different sectors to mitigate the consequences associated with this limitation. Objective: To estimate the self-perception of hearing disability in Colombia and to determine the factors associated with this limitation. Materials and Methods: The present study is cross-sectional, based on the analysis of secondary information obtained from the Registry for Localization and Characterization of Persons with Disability (RLCPD) during the 2002-2008 period. Socio-demographic and healthcare variables were analyzed. Results: 13.6% (102,648/750,377) of the population reported hearing limitations even with the use of special hearing devices. 43.52% (44,041) of people over 3 years of age could neither read nor write. 29.39% (30,145) of people who reported this limitation are not affiliated to any sort of health insurance system. Factors found to be associated with hearing limitations were: socioeconomic stratus (OR: 1.33; CI 95% 1.25; 1.42), illiteracy (OR: 1.44; CI 95% 1.42; 1.46) and lack of affiliation to a health insurance system (OR: 1.03; CI 95% 1.01; 1.04). Conclusion: People registered with hearing disability live under vulnerable conditions; among them, most/the majority pertained to a segment of the population with low economic resources and had difficulty obtaining/accessing work, education and healthcare services.
Cite this paper: Peñaranda, A. , Martínez, S. , Aparicio, M. , García, J. and Barón, C. (2015) Hearing Disability in Colombia Self-Perception and Associated Factors 2002-2008. International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, 4, 18-25. doi: 10.4236/ijohns.2015.41004.

[1]   García, J.M., Penaranda, A., Barón, C. and Campos, S. (2004) The Fundacion Santafe de Bogota-Colombia Cochlear Implant Program: A Five year Experience. In: Cohen, N. and Waltzman, S., Eds., Cochlear Implants, Thieme Medical Pub., New York, 337-339.

[2]   Penaranda, A. and Megaglia, A. (2007) Predisposing Factors in the Perception of Speech. In: Penaranda, A., García, J., Pinzón, M., Eds., Manual de otorrinolaringología, AMOLCA, Bogotá, 212-223.

[3]   Thompson, D., McPhillips, H., Davis, R., Lieu, T., Homer, C. and Helfand, M. (2001) Universal Newborn Hearing Screening: Summary of Evidence. JAMA, 286, 2000-2010.

[4]   Stein, K. (1999) Factors Influencing the Efficacy of Universal Newborn Screaning. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 46, 95-105.

[5]   Comisión de regulación en salud. CRES. (2011)

[6]   Perez, R., Arriagada, M., Aviles, M., Palma, J. and Valenzuela, M. (2006) Maternal and Perinatal Factors Associated with Hearing Loss. Rev Colomb Obstet Ginecol. [Online], 57, 201-206.

[7]   Carrasquilla, G., Martínez, S., Latorre, M., García, S., González, C., Rincón, C., et al. (2009) Disability in the Context of the General System of Social Security in Colombia: Guidelines, Epidemiology and Economic Impact. Bogotá.

[8]   Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (2006) Preliminary Results of the Implementation of the Data for Localization and Characterization of People with Disabilities. National Consolidated to July 2006. Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística, Ministerio de Educación Nacional, Bogotá.

[9]   Bittencourt, Z. and Hoehne, E. (2009) Quality of Life of Deaf People’s Relatives Assisted in a Rehabilitation Center. Ciência Saúde Coletiva, 14, 1235-1239.

[10]   Gething, L. (2000) Ageing with Long-Standing Hearing Impairment and Deafness. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 23, 209-215.

[11]   Mackenzie, I. and Smith, A. (2009) Deafness the Neglected and Hidden Disability. Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology, 103, 565-571.

[12]   de Castro, S., Galvao, C., Carandina, L., Azevedo, M., Goi, M. and Goldbaum, M. (2008) Visual, Hearing, and Physical Disability: Prevalence and Associated Factors in a Population-Based Study. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 24, 1773-1782.

[13]   Cobas, M., Zacca, E., Morales, F., Icart, E., Jordán, A. and Valdéz, M. (2010) Epidemiological Characterization of People with Disabilities in Cuba. Revista Cubana de Salud Pública, 36, 306-310.

[14]   Scheier, D. (2009) Barriers to Health Care for People with Hearing Loss: A Review of the Literature. Journal of the New York State Nurses’ Association, 40, 4-10.

[15]   Steinberg, A., Barnett, S., Meador, H. and Wiggins, E. (2006) Health Care System Accessibility Experiences and Perceptions of Deaf People. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21, 260-266.

[16]   Isaacson, B. (2010) Hearing Loss. Medical Clinics of North America, 94, 973-988.

[17]   García, F., Penaloza, Y. and Poblano, A. (2003) Hearing Disorders as a Problem of Public Health in Mexico. Anales de otorrinolaringología Mexicana, 48, 20-29.

[18]   Ministerio de Protección Social (2006) Guía de Atención Integral Basada en la Evidencia para Hipoacusia Neurosensorial Inducida por Ruido en el Lugar de Trabajo (GATI-HNIR).

[19]   Ministerio de Salud (1983) Resolution 8321/1983 by Which Dictate the Rules on Protection and Conservation of the Hearing of Health and Well-Being of People, Cause of the Production and Emission of Noise. Ministerio de Salud, Bogotá.

[20]   Fuente, A. and Hickson, L. (2011) Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Asia. International Journal of Audiology, 50, 3-10.

[21]   Boss, E., Niparko, J., Gaskin, D. and Levinson, K. (2011) Socioeconomic Disparities for Hearing-Impaired Children in the United States. The Laryngoscope, 121, 860-866.

[22]   Kubba, H., MacAndie, C., Ritchie, K. and MacFarlane, M. (2004) Is Deafness a Disease of Poverty? The Association between Socio-Economic Deprivation and Congenital Impairment. International Journal Audiology, 43, 123-125.

[23]   Mieko, N., Nobuo, A., Tsutomu, N., Tomoyuki, H., et al. (2001) Smoking, Alcohol, Sleep and Risk of Idiopathic Sudden Deafness: A Case-Control Study Using Pooled Controls. Journal of Epidemiology, 11, 81-86.

[24]   Zuniga, J., Espinoza, C. and Martínez, C. (2008) Sudden Hearing Loss. One Year Experience. Revista de otorrinola-ringología y cirugía de cabeza y cuello, 68, 255-262.

[25]   Congreso de la República de Colombia (2005) 982 Law of 2005 Which Lays down Rules Aimed at Equal Opportunities for Deaf and Deafblind and Enacting Other Provisions. Congreso de la República de Colombia, Bogotá.

[26]   INSOR (2008) Clínica Rivas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá. Working Paper on Chapter IX of the 982 Law 2005, Bogotá. (Unpublished)