JBNB  Vol.6 No.1 , January 2015
Mechanical Properties of a Vacuum-Sintered Apatite Body for Use as Artificial Bone
Author(s) Kenichi Tamura
ABSTRACT

Regenerative artificial bone material and bone parts were fabricated using vacuum-sintered bodies of a “titanium medical apatite (TMA?)” that is formed by chemically connecting Ti oxide molecules to the reactive [Ca10 (PO4 )6 ] group of hydroxyapatite (HAp). Sintering at temperatures of 1273 - 1773 K caused this TMA sintered bodies to recrystallize and form a varying mix of α-TCP (tricalcium phosphate), β-TCP and Perovskite-CaTiO3 phases. The Perovskite crystals proved to be quite stable and hard, forming a uniform distribution of similarly sized fibers in all directions under vacuum sintering, but an irregular distribution and size when sintered in the presence of oxygen. Complete recrystallization was achieved by vacuum sintering at temperatures in excess of 1473 K. In particular, TMA vacuum-sintered bodies at 1573 K are given the maximum value; a Vickers hardness of 400, a bending strength of 43 MPa, a compressive strength of 270 MPa and a density of approximately 2300 kg/m3 was achieved that closely corresponds to that of compact bone or a tooth. As these TMA bodies could also be cut into various forms, they are considered a promising biomaterial for use as artificial bone in the regeneration of natural bone, or to provide reinforcement of bone junctions in dental and orthopedic surgery.


Cite this paper
Tamura, K. (2015) Mechanical Properties of a Vacuum-Sintered Apatite Body for Use as Artificial Bone. Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, 6, 45-52. doi: 10.4236/jbnb.2015.61005.
References
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[12]   Hayashi, M., Tamura, K., et al. (2010) Influence of Sintered Body of Titanium Medical Apatite (TMA) on Osteoblastic Activity. Nihon University Dental Journal, 84, 93-96.

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[15]   Mezawa, S., Kawano, T., Yoshida, K., Nozaki, H., Saito, T., Tamura, K. and Onozawa, M. (1999) Evaluation of Human Tooth Structure with the Ultrasonic Imaging Technique. Journal of Oral Science, 41, 191-197.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2334/josnusd.41.191

[16]   Currey, J.D. (1970) The Mechanical Properties of Bone. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 73, 210-231.
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[17]   Craig, R.G., Peyton, F.A. and Johnson, D.W. (1961) Compressive Properties of Enamel, Dental Cements, and Gold. J. D. Res. September-October, 40, 936-945.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scriptamat.2010.08.006

[22]   Alfirano, Mineta, S., et al. (2011) Precipitates in As-Cast and Heat-Treated ASTM F75 Co-Cr-Mo-C Alloys Containing Si and/or Mn. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 42A, 1941-1949.

[23]   Niinomi, M., Akahori, T. and Nakai, M. (2008) In Situ X-Ray Analysis of Mechanism of Nonlinear Super Elastic Behavior of Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr System Beta-Type Titanium Ally for Biomedical Applications. Materials Science and Engineering, C28, 406-413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2007.04.028

[24]   Sugiyama, N., et al. (2009) Bioactive Titanate Nanomesh Layer on the Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass by Hydrothermal-Electrochemical Technique. Acta Biomaterialia, 5, 1367-1373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2008.10.014

[25]   Niki, Y. (2012) Metal Hypersensitivity in Field of Orthopaedic Surgery. Japanese Society for Biomaterials, 30, 113- 116.

[26]   Ohtsu, N., Sembori, S., et al. (2011) Fabricatoin of Composite Coating Comprising Bioactive Calcium and Sodium Titanates on Titanium Using Calcium Hydroxide Slurry Containing Ions. Surface & Coatings Technology, 205, 3785- 3790. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2011.01.035

[27]   Hanawa, T. (2010) Biofunctionalization of Titanium for Dental Implant. Science Direct, 46, 93-101.

[28]   Saito, M. (2002) Bone Graft Substitutes in Orthopaedic Surgery. Japanese Society for Biomaterials, 20, 329-336.

[29]   Tamura, K., Fujita, T. and Morisaki, Y. (2013) Vacuum-Sintered Body of a Novel Apatite for Artificial Bone. Central European Journal of Engineering, 3, 700-706. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s13531-013-0127-4

[30]   Aoki, H. (1999) Marvelous Biomaterial Apatite. Ishiyaku Publishers, Inc., Tokyo.

[31]   Hayashi, M., Tamura, K., et al. (2010) Influence of Sintered Body of Titanium Medical Apatite (TMA) on Osteoblastic Activity. Nihon University Dental Journal, 84, 93-96.

[32]   Hayashi, M., Tamura, K., et al. (2011) The Biocompatibility of Novel Apatite Chemically Bonded with Titanium Dioxide as Potential Bone Substitute. World Congress for Oral Implantology (WCOI) Year Book 2010, 35-39.

[33]   Fujita, T., Tamura, K. and Morisaki, Y. (2005) Sintered Body of Titanium Compound. Publication No. for an International Patent, W02005-058754.

[34]   Mezawa, S., Kawano, T., Yoshida, K., Nozaki, H., Saito, T., Tamura, K. and Onozawa, M. (1999) Evaluation of Human Tooth Structure with the Ultrasonic Imaging Technique. Journal of Oral Science, 41, 191-197.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2334/josnusd.41.191

[35]   Currey, J.D. (1970) The Mechanical Properties of Bone. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 73, 210-231.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00003086-197011000-00023

[36]   Craig, R.G., Peyton, F.A. and Johnson, D.W. (1961) Compressive Properties of Enamel, Dental Cements, and Gold. J. D. Res. September-October, 40, 936-945.

[37]   Dana, J.D. and Dana, E.S. (1997) Dana’s New Mineralogy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

[38]   Housecroft, C.E. and Sharpe, A.G. (2008) Inorganic Chemistry. 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited.

 
 
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