OJMS  Vol.5 No.1 , January 2015
Surface Mixed Layer Profile of Physical and Biogeochemical Variables in the Subpolar North-West and -East Atlantic Ocean: A Data-Model Comparison Study
ABSTRACT
This paper presents a study of physical and biogeochemical variables using numerical model and mixed layer oceanographic data from a 2 - 3 year in situmeasurements in the Northwestern and Northeastern sites of the Atlantic Ocean. Model outputs are presented and indicated that very good estimates may be obtained. The outputs showed considerable agreement in reproducing seasonal distributions of pCO2, pCO2-T, pCO2-nonT, mixed layer temperature, and chlorophyll-a in both winter and summer, and therefore provide useful physical and theoretical understanding of their biogeochemistry. The model pCO2indicated a distinct temporal variability with seasonal changes coinciding with the change in sea surface temperature. It also provides an agreement that there is a strong seasonal cycle of mixed layer parameters filliped by nonthermal and physical factors. As an outgrowth of this work, the pCO2 model outputs affirm the North Atlantic Ocean capacity as an important oceanographic sink for anthropogenic carbon dioxide.

Cite this paper
Benson, N. , Asuquo, F. , Osibanjo, O. , Etesin, U. and Adedapo, A. (2015) Surface Mixed Layer Profile of Physical and Biogeochemical Variables in the Subpolar North-West and -East Atlantic Ocean: A Data-Model Comparison Study. Open Journal of Marine Science, 5, 33-44. doi: 10.4236/ojms.2015.51004.
References
[1]   Matear, R.J. and Jones, E. (2010) Marine Biogeochemical Modelling and Data Assimilation. Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment Special Volume.

[2]   Bates, N.R., Pequignet, A.C. and Sabine, C.L. (2006) Ocean Carbon Cycling in the Indian Ocean: 1. Spatiotemporal Variability of Inorganic Carbon and Air-Sea CO2 Gas Exchange. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 20, GB3020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005GB002491

[3]   Bates, N.R., Pequignet, A.C. and Sabine, C.L. (2006) Ocean Carbon Cycling in the Indian Ocean: 2. Estimates of Net Community Production. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 20, GB3021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005GB002492

[4]   Sabine, C.L., Wanninkhof, R., Key, R.M., Goyet, C. and Millero, F.J. (2000) Seasonal CO2 Fluxes in the Tropical and Subtropical Indian Ocean. Marine Chemistry, 72, 33-53.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4203(00)00064-5

[5]   Sharada, M.K., Swathi, P.S., Yajnik, K.S. and Devasena, C.K. (2008) Role of Biology in the Air-Sea Carbon Flux in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea. Journal of Earth System Science, 117, 429-447. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12040-008-0043-9

[6]   Brasseur, P., Gruber, N., Barciela, R., Brander, K., Doron, M., El Moussaoui, A., Hobday, A.J., Huret, M., Kremeur, A.-S., Lehodey, P., Matear, R., Moulin, C., Murtugudde, R., Senina, I. and Svendsen, E. (2009) Integrating Biogeochemistry and Ecology into Ocean Data Assimilation Systems. Oceanography, 22, 206-215. http://dx.doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2009.80

[7]   Doron, M., Brasseur, P., Brankart, J.-M., Losa, S.N. and Melet, A. (2013) Stochastic Estimation of Biogeochemical Parameters from Globcolour Ocean Colour Satellite Data in a North Atlantic 3D Ocean Coupled Physical-Biogeochemical Model. Journal of Marine Systems, 117-118, 81-95.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2013.02.007

[8]   Ford, D.A., Edwards, K.P., Lea, D., Barciela, R.M., Martin, M.J. and Demaria, J. (2012) Assimilating GlobColour Ocean Colour Data into a Pre-Operational Physical-Biogeochemical Model. Ocean Science, 8, 751-771. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/os-8-751-2012

[9]   Ullman, D., McKinley, G.A., Bennington, V. and Dutkiewicz, S. (2009) Trends in the North Atlantic Carbon Sink: 1992-2006. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23, GB4011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2008GB003383

[10]   Dutkiewicz, S., Follows, M.J. and Parekh, P. (2005) Interactions of the Iron Andphosphorus Cycles: A Three-Dimensional Model Study. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 19, GB1021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004GB002342

[11]   Omstedt, A., Gustafsson, E. and Wesslander, K. (2009) Modelling the Uptake and Release of Carbon Dioxide in the Baltic Sea Surface Water. Continental Shelf Research, 29, 870-885.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2009.01.006

[12]   Belyaev, K.P., Tanajura, C.A.S. and O’Brien, J.J. (2001) A Data Assimilation Method Used with an Ocean Circulation Model and Its Application to the Tropical Atlantic Ocean. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 25, 655-670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0307-904X(01)00003-8

[13]   Natvik, L. and Evensen, G. (2003) Assimilation of Ocean Colour Data into a Biochemicalmodel of the North Atlantic—Part 1 Data Assimilation Experiments. Journal of Marine Systems, 40, 127-153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-7963(03)00016-2

[14]   Testut, C.-E., Brasseur, P., Brankart, J.-M. and Verron, J. (2003) Assimilation of Sea Surface Temperature and Altimetric Observations during 1992-1993 into an Eddy Permitting Primitive Equation Model of the North Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Marine Systems, 40-41, 291-316.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-7963(03)00022-8

[15]   McKinley, G.A., Takahashi, T., Buitenhius, E., Chai, F., Christian, J.F., Doney, S.C., LeQuere, C., Lima, I., Murtugudde, R., Shi, L. and Wetzel, P. (2006) North Pacific Carbon Cycle Response to Climate Variability on Seasonal to Decadal Timescales. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, Article ID: C07S06. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005JC003173

[16]   Kortzinger, A., Send, U., Lampitt, R.S., Hartman, S., Wallace, D.W.R., Karstensen, J., Villagarcia, M.G., Llinas, O. and DeGrandpre, M.D. (2008) Seasonal pCO2 Cycle at 49°N/16.5°W in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and What It Tells Us about Biological Productivity. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, Article ID: C04020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007JC004347

[17]   Kortzinger, A., Send, U., Wallace, D.W.R., Kartensen, J. and DeGrandpre, M. (2008) Seasonal Cycle of O2 and pCO2 in the Central Labrador Sea: Atmospheric, Biological, and Physical Implications. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 22, Article ID: GB1014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007GB003029

[18]   Bennington, V., McKinley, G.A., Dutkiewicz, S. and Ullman, D. (2009) What Does Chlorophyll Variability Tell Us about Export and CO2 Flux Variability in North Atlantic? Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23, Article ID: GB3002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2008GB003241

[19]   Reynolds, R.W., Smith, T.M., Liu, C., Chelton, D.B., Casey, K.S. and Schlax, M.G. (2007) Daily High-Resolution-Blended Analyses for Sea Surface Temperature. Journal of Climate, 20, 5473-5492.

[20]   Gent, P.R. and McWilliams, J.C. (1990) Isopycnal Mixing in Ocean General Circulation Models. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 20, 150-155.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1990)020<0150:IMIOCM>2.0.CO;2

[21]   Large, W.G., McWilliams, J.C. and Doney, S.C. (1994) Oceanic Vertical Mixing: A Review and a Model with a Nonlocal Boundary Layer Parameterization. Reviews of Geophysics, 32, 363-403.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/94RG01872

[22]   Follows, M.J., Dutkiewicz, S. and Ito, T. (2006) On the Solution of the Carbonate System in Ocean Biogeochemistry Models. Ocean Modeling, 12, 290-301.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2005.05.004

[23]   Keeling, C.D. and Whorf, T.P. (2005) Atmospheric CO2 Records from Sites in the SIO Airsampling Network. Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge.

[24]   Straneo, F. (2006) Heat and Freshwater Transport through the Central Labrador Sea. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 36, 606-628. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JPO2875.1

[25]   Polonsky, A.B. (2008) Mixed Layer. In: Philanders, S.G., Ed., Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change, Vol. 2, Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks, 657-658.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412963893.n428

[26]   Kidston, M., Matear, R. and Baird, M.E. (2011) Parameter Optimisation of a Marine Ecosystem Model at Two Contrasting Stations in the Sub-Antarctic Zone. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 58, 2301-2315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2011.05.018

[27]   Matear, R., Lenton, A., Chamberlain, M., Mongin, M. and Baird, M. (2013) Biogeochemical Modeling and Data Assimilation: Status in Australia and Internationally. Australian Coastal and Oceans Modelling and Observations Workshop (ACOMO) Extended Abstracts. http://imos.org.au/fileadmin/user_upload/shared/IMOS%20General/ACOMO/Extended_Abstracts/15. MATEAR_Biogeochemical_modelling_and_data_assimilation_status_in_Australia_and_internationally. pdf

[28]   Schartau, M. and Oschlies, A. (2003) Simultaneous Data-Based Optimization of a 1D-Ecosystem Model at Three Locations in the North Atlantic: Part I—Method and Parameter Estimates. Journal of Marine Research, 61, 765-793. http://dx.doi.org/10.1357/002224003322981147

 
 
Top