JSEMAT  Vol.5 No.1 , January 2015
Correlations of Materials Surface Properties with Biological Responses
Author(s) Robert E. Baier
ABSTRACT
More than 50 years have passed since it was first recognized that the surface properties, and predominantly the surface energies of materials controlled their interactions with all biological phases via their spontaneous acquisition of proteinaceous “conditioning films” of differing degrees of denaturation but usually of the same substances within any given system. This led to the understanding that useful engineering control of such interactions could thus be manifested through adjustments to those surface properties, giving significant control and utility to the biomaterials developer without requiring detailed discovery of the biological specifications of the components involved. Thus, effective selection of adhesive versus abhesive (non-stick, non-retention) outcomes for such useful appliances as dental implants versus substitute blood vessels, or water-resistant bonded structures versus clean, nontoxic ship bottoms is now facilitated with little biological background required. A historical overview is presented, followed by a brief survey of the forces involved and most useful analyses applied. Utility for blood-contacting materials is described in contrast to utility for bone- and tissue-contacting materials, demonstrating practical uses in controlling cell-surface interactions and preventing biofouling. New research directions being explored are noted, urging applications of this prior knowledge to replace the use of toxicants.

Cite this paper
Baier, R. (2015) Correlations of Materials Surface Properties with Biological Responses. Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology, 5, 42-51. doi: 10.4236/jsemat.2015.51005.
References
[1]   Baier, R.E. (2006) Surface Behaviour of Biomaterials: The Theta Surface for Biocompatibility. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 17, 1057-1062. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10856-006-0444-8

[2]   Baier, R.E. (1982) Conditioning Surfaces to Suit the Biomedical Environment: Recent Progress. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 104, 257-271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.3138358

[3]   Baier, R.E. and Dutton, R.C. (1969) Initial Events in Interactions of Blood with Foreign Surfaces. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 3, 191-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.820030115

[4]   Baier, R.E. (1981) Modification of Surfaces to Reduce Fouling and/or Improve Cleaning. Proceedings of Fundmentals and Applications of Surface Phenomena Associated with Fouling and Cleaning in Food Processing, Tylosand, 6-9 April 1981, 1-22.

[5]   Baier, R.E. (1981) Early Events of Micro-Biofouling of All Heat Transfer Equipment. In: Somerscales, E.F.C. and Knudsen, J.G., Eds., Fouling of Heat Transfer Equipment, Hemisphere Publishing Corp, Washington, DC, 293-304.

[6]   Baier, R.E. (1985) Cell Seeding: Biomaterial Surface Preparation. ASAIO Journal, 8, 104-108.

[7]   Baier, R.E. (1973) Occurrence, Nature, and Extent of Cohesive and Adhesive Forces in Dental Integuments. In: Lasslo A. and Quintana, R.P., Eds., Surface Chemistry and Dental Integuments, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfield, 337-391.

[8]   Baier, R.E., Akers, C.K., Perlmutter, S., Dardik, H., Dardik, I. and Wodka, M. (1976) Processed Human Umbilical Cord Veins for Vascular Reconstructive Surgery. Transactions—American Society for Artificial Internal Organs, 22, 514-524.

[9]   Baier, R.E. (1978) Physical Chemistry of the Vascular Interface: Composition, Texture, and Adhesive Quality. In: Sawyer, P.N. and Kaplitt, M.J., Eds., Vascular Grafts, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 76-107.

[10]   Baier, R.E. and Loeb, G.I. (1971) Multiple Parameters Characterizing Interfacial Films of a Protein Analogue, Polymethylglutamate. In: Craver, C.D., Ed., Polymer Characterization: Interdisciplinary Approaches, Plenum Press, New York, 79-96.

[11]   Dardik, H., Baier, R.E., Meenaghan, M., Natiella, J., Weinberg, S., Turner, R., Sussman, B., Kahn, M., Ibrahim, I. and Dardik, I.I. (1982) Morphologic and Biophysical Assessment of Long Term Human Umbilical Cord Vein Implants Used as Vascular Conduits. Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics, 154, 17-26.

[12]   Baier, R.E. and Abbott, W.M. (1978) Comparative Biophysical Properties of the Flow Surfaces of Contemporary Vascular Grafts. In: Dardik, H., Ed., Grafts Materials in Vascular Surgery, Symposia Specialists, Inc., Miami, 70-103.

[13]   Baier, R.E. and Meyer, A.E. (1985) Surface Chemical Approaches to Decontamination and Disinfection. In: Lund, D., Plett, E. and Sandu, C., Eds., Fouling & Cleaning in Food Processing, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, 336-339.

[14]   Baier, R.E. (1984) Initial Events in Microbial Film Formation. In: Costlow, J.D. and Tipper, R.C., Eds., Marine Biodeterioration: An Interdisciplinary Study, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, 57-62.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-9720-9_8

[15]   Baier, R.E. and Weiss, L. (1975) Demonstration of the Involvement of Adsorbed Proteins in Cell Adhesion and Cell Growth on Solid Surfaces. In: Applied Chemistry at Protein Interfaces, Advances in Chemistry Series, Vol. 145, American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 300-307.

[16]   Baier, R.E. and Lippes, J. (1975) Glycoprotein Adsorption in Intrauterine Foreign Bodies. In: Applied Chemistry at Protein Interfaces, Advances in Chemistry Series, Vol. 145, American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 308-318.

[17]   Baier, R.E. and Thomas, E.B. (1996) The Ocean: The Eye of the Earth. Contact Lens Spectrum, 37-44.

[18]   Baier, R.E., Meyer, A.E., Natiella, J.R. and Carter, J.M. (1984) Surface Properties Determine Bioadhesive Outcomes: Methods and Results. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 18, 337-355.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.820180404

[19]   DePalma, V.A. and Baier, R.E. (1978) Microfouling of Metallic and Coated Metallic Flow Surfaces in Model Heat Exchange Cells. Proceedings of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Biofouling and Corrosion Symposium, U.S. Department of Energy, PNL-SA-7115, Washington DC, 89-106.

[20]   Baier, R.E. (1982) Comments on Cell Adhesion to Biomaterial Surfaces: Conflicts and Concerns. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 16, 173-175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.820160210

[21]   Baier, R.E. and DePalma, V.A. (1979) Flow Cell and Method for Continuously Monitoring Deposits on Flow Surfaces. 8 Claims. U.S. Patent No. 4, 175, 233.

[22]   Working Group on Physicochemical Characterization of Biomaterials, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Leading to Publication of “Guidelines for Physico-Chemical Characterization of Biomaterials”, NIH Publication No. 80-2186, September 1980.

[23]   Baier, R.E. and Zisman, W.A. (1970) Wettability and Multiple Attenuated Internal Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy of Solvent-Cast Thin Films of Polyamides. Macromolecules, 3, 462-468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma60016a017

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[25]   Baier, R.E., Meyer, A.E., DePalma, V.A., King, R.W. and Fornalik, M.S. (1983) Surface Microfouling during the Induction Period. Journal of Heat Transfer, 105, 618-624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.3245630

[26]   Baier, R.E., Forsberg, R.L., Meyer, A.E. and Lundquist, D.C. (2014) Ballast Tank Biofilms Resist Water Exchange but Distribute Dominant Species. Management of Biological Invasions, 5, 241-244. (Special ICAIS Issue)
http://dx.doi.org/10.3391/mbi.2014.5.3.07

[27]   Baier, R.E., Mack, E.J., Rogers, C.W., Pilie, R.J. and DePalma, V.A. (1981) Source Assessment of Atmospheric Aerosols: Spectroscopic Data from a Rapid Field Technique. Optical Engineering, 20, 866-872.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.7972828

[28]   Vargo, T.G., Hook, D.J., Gardella, J.A., Eberhardt, M.A., Meyer, A.E. and Baier, R.E. (1991) A Multitechnique Surface Analytical Study of a Segmented Block Copolymer Poly (Ether-Urethane) Modified through an H2O Radio Frequency Glow Discharge. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, 29, 535-545.
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[29]   Boretos, J.W., Pierce, W.S., Baier, R.E., Leroy, A.F. and Donachy, H.J. (1975) Surface and Bulk Characteristics of a Polyether Urethane for Artificial Hearts. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 9, 237-340.
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[33]   Baier, R.E., DePalma, V.A., Goupil, D.W. and Cohen, E. (1985) Human Platelet Spreading on Substrata of Known Surface Chemistry. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 19, 1157-1167.
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[35]   Banas, M.D. and Baier, R.E. (2000) Accelerated Mineralization of Prosthetic Heart Valves. Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals Science and Technology, 354, 249-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10587250008023619

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[38]   Baier, R.E. (2002) A Challenging Anomaly—Glass that Does Not Clot Blood! The Glass Researcher, 12, 23-24.

[39]   Baier, R.E. and Meyer, A.E. (1988) Implant Surface Preparation. International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, 3, 9-20.

[40]   Baier, R.E., Carter, J.M., Sorenson, S.E., Meyer, A.E., McGown, B.D. and Kasprzak, S.A. (1992) Radiofrequency Gas Plasma (Glow Discharge) Disinfection of Dental Operative Instruments, Including Handpieces. Journal of Oral Implantology, 18, 236-242.

[41]   Glantz, P.O., Baier, R.E. and Christersson, C.E. (1996) Biochemical and Physiological Considerations for Modeling Biofilms in the Oral Cavity: A Review. Dental Materials, 12, 208-214.
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[42]   Baier, R.E. and DePalma, V.A. (1971) The Relation of the Internal Surface of Grafts to Thrombosis. In: Dale, W.A., Ed., Management of Arterial Occlusive Disease, Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc., Chicago, 147-163.

[43]   Gould, J.A., Liebler, B., Baier, R., Benson, J., Boretos, J., Callahan, T., Canty, E., Compton, R., Marlowe, D., O’Holla, R., Page, B., Paulson, J. and Swanson, C. (1993) Biomaterials Availability: Development of a Characterization Strategy for Interchanging Silicone Polymers in Implantable Medical Devices. Journal of Applied Biomaterials, 4, 355-358.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jab.770040410

[44]   Baier, R.E., Loeb, G.I. and Wallace, G.T. (1971) Role of an Artificial Boundary in Modifying Blood Proteins. Federation Proceedings, Federation of AmerSoc for Experimental Biol, Bethesda, Vol. 30, 1523-1538.

[45]   Tietze, C. (1966) Contraception with Intrauterine Devices. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 96, 1043- 1054.

[46]   Glantz, P.O., Arnebrant, T., Nylander, T. and Baier, R.E. (1999) Bioadhesion—A Phenomenon with Multiple Dimensions. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 57, 238-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/000163599428634

[47]   Baier, R.E. (1980) Substrata Influences on the Adhesion of Microorganisms and Their Resultant New Surface Properties. In: Bitton, G. and Marshall, K.S., Eds., Adsorption of Microorganisms, Wiley-Interscience Publishers, Hoboken, 59-104.

[48]   Baier, R.E. (1970) Surface Properties Influencing Biological Adhesion. In: Manly, R.S., Ed., Adhesion in Biological Systems, Academic Press, New York, 15-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-469050-9.50007-7

[49]   Baier, R.E., Dutton, R.C. and Gott, V.L. (1970) Surface Chemical Features of Blood Vessel Walls and of Synthetic Materials Exhibiting Thromboresistance. In: Blank, M., Ed., Surface Chemistry of Biological Systems, Plenum Press, New York, 235-260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-9005-7_14

[50]   Baier, R.E. (1975) Blood Compatibility of Synthetic Polymers: Perspective and Problems. In: Kronenthal, R.L., Oser, Z. and Martin, E., Eds., Polymers in Medicine and Surgery, Plenum Press, New York, 139-159.
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[51]   Baier, R.E., DePalma, V.A., Meyer, A.E., King, R.W. and Fornalik, M.S. (1981) Control of Heat Exchange Surface Microfouling by Material and Process Variations. In: Chenoweth, J.M. and Impagliazzo, M., Eds., Fouling in Heat Exchange Equipment, HTD-Vol. 17, AmerSoc Mechanical Engineers, New York, 97-103.

[52]   King, R.W., Meyer, A.E., Ziegler, R.C. and Baier, R.E. (1981) New Flow Cell Technology for Assessing Primary Biofouling in Oceanic Heat Exchangers. Proceedings of the 8th Ocean Energy Conference, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington DC, 431-436.

[53]   Baier, R.E., Meyer, A.E. and King, R.W. (1988) Improved Flow-Cell Techniques for Assessing Marine Microfouling and Corrosion. In: Thompson, M.F., Sarojini, R. and Nagabhushanam, R., Eds., Marine Biodeterioration, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co., Ltd., New Delhi, 385-394.

[54]   Forsberg, R.L., Baier, R.E. and Meyer, A.E. (2014) Sampling and Experiments with Biofilms in the Environment: Part 2, Sampling from Large Structures Such as Ballast Tanks. In: Dobretsov, S., Thomason, J.C. and Williams, D.N., Eds., Biofouling Methods, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.

[55]   Baier, R.E., Meyer, A.E. and Forsberg, R.L. (1997) Certification of Properties of Nontoxic Fouling-Release Coatings Exposed to Abrasion and Long-Term Immersion. Naval Research Reviews, 49, 60-65.

[56]   Baier, R.E., Meyer, A.E., Forsberg, R.L. and Ricotta, M.S. (1997) Intrinsic Drag Reduction of Biofouling-Resistant Coatings. Proceedings, Emerging Nonmetallic Materials for the Marine Environment, U.S.-Pacific Rim Workshop Sponsored by the U.S. Office of Naval Research, Honolulu, 1-36 through 1-40.

[57]   Baier, R.E., Gucinski, H., Meenaghan, M.A., Wirth, J. and Glantz, P.O. (1984) Biophysical Studies of Mucosal Surfaces. In: Glantz, P.O., Leach, S.A. and Ericson, T., Eds., Oral Interfacial Reactions of Bone, Soft Tissue & Saliva, IRL Press Ltd, Oxford, 83-95.

[58]   Baier, R.E. and Meyer, A.E. (1983) Surface Energetics and Biological Adhesion. In: Mittal, K.L., Ed., Physiochemical Aspects of Polymer Surfaces, Vol. 2, Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, 895-909.

[59]   Baier, R.E. (1973) Influence of the Initial Surface Condition of Materials on Bioadhesion. Proceedings, Third International Congress on Marine Corrosion and Fouling, Northwestern University Press, Evanston, 633-639.

[60]   Fletcher, R.L. and Baier, R.E. (1984) Influence of Surface Energy on the Development of the Green Alga Enteromorpha. Marine Biology Letters, 5, 251-254.

[61]   Meyer, A., Baier, R., Wood, C.D., Stein, J., Truby, K., Holm, E., Montemarano, J., Kavanagh, C., Nedved, B., Smith, C., Swain, G. and Wiebe, D. (2006) Contact Angle Anomalies Indicate that Surface-Active Eluates from Silicone Coatings Inhibit the Adhesive Mechanisms of Fouling Organisms. Biofouling, 22, 411-423.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08927010601025473

[62]   Glantz, P.O.J., Arnebrant, T., Nylander, T. and Baier, R.E. (1999) Bioadhesion—A Phenomenon with Multiple Dimensions. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 57, 238-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/000163599428634

[63]   Baier, R.E. (1992) Influence of Surface and Fluid Conditions on Thrombus Generation. Proceedings of the Amer Acad of Cardiovascular Perfusion, 13, 143-146.

[64]   Dutton, R.C., Webber, A.J., Johnson, S.A. and Baier, R.E. (1969) Microstructure of Initial Thrombus Formation on Foreign Materials. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 3, 13-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.820030104

[65]   Nayak, S.C., Baier, R.E., Meyer, A.E. and Abuhaimed, T. (2010) Improvement of Root Canal X-Ray Imaging by Delmopinol Pretreatment-Assisted Contrast Media Infiltration. Northeast Bioengineering Conference Proceedings, Columbia University, New York, 26-28 March 2010, ABS-026, 39.

[66]   L’Italien, G.J., Megerman, J., Hasson, J.E., Meyer, A.E., Baier, R.E. and Abbott, W.M. (1986) Compliance Changes in Glutaraldehyde-Treated Arteries. Journal of Surgical Research, 41, 182-188.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-4804(86)90023-5

[67]   Meyer, A.E., King, R.W., Baier, R.E. and Fornalik, M.S. (1985) A Field Study of Fouling of Test Surfaces Exposed to Flowing Brackish River Water. Proceedings, Condenser Biofouling Control Symposium, Electric Power Research Institute.

[68]   Baier, R.E., Meyer, A.E., Akers, C.K., Natiella, J.R., Meenaghan, M.A. and Carter, J.M. (1982) Degradation Effects of Conventional Steam Sterilization on Biomaterial Surfaces. Biomaterials, 3, 241-245.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0142-9612(82)90027-8

[69]   Park, J.H., Olivares-Navarrete, R., Baier, R.E., Meyer, A.E., Tannenbaum, R., Boyan, B.D. and Schwartz, Z. (2012) Effect of Cleaning and Sterilization on Titanium Implant Surface Properties and Cellular Response. Acta Biomaterialia, 8, 1966-1975. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2011.11.026

[70]   White, J.A., Baier, R.E., Meyer, A.E., Burke, R.P. and Hausmann, E.M. (2000) Biomechanical and Biochemical Paths to Dystrophic Mineralization of Stented Cardiovascular Tissues. In: Vossoughi, J., Kipshidze, N. and Karanian, J.W., Eds., Stent Graft Update, Chapter 5, Medical and Engineering Publishers, Inc., Washington DC, 37-65.

[71]   Baier, R.E. (2006) Surface Behaviour of Biomaterials: The Theta Surface for Biocompatibility. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 17, 1057-1062. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10856-006-0444-8

[72]   Baier, R.E. (1982) Conditioning Surfaces to Suit the Biomedical Environment: Recent Progress. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 104, 257-271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.3138358

[73]   Baier, R.E. and Dutton, R.C. (1969) Initial Events in Interactions of Blood with Foreign Surfaces. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 3, 191-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.820030115

[74]   Baier, R.E. (1981) Modification of Surfaces to Reduce Fouling and/or Improve Cleaning. Proceedings of Fundmentals and Applications of Surface Phenomena Associated with Fouling and Cleaning in Food Processing, Tylosand, 6-9 April 1981, 1-22.

[75]   Baier, R.E. (1981) Early Events of Micro-Biofouling of All Heat Transfer Equipment. In: Somerscales, E.F.C. and Knudsen, J.G., Eds., Fouling of Heat Transfer Equipment, Hemisphere Publishing Corp, Washington, DC, 293-304.

[76]   Baier, R.E. (1985) Cell Seeding: Biomaterial Surface Preparation. ASAIO Journal, 8, 104-108.

[77]   Baier, R.E. (1973) Occurrence, Nature, and Extent of Cohesive and Adhesive Forces in Dental Integuments. In: Lasslo A. and Quintana, R.P., Eds., Surface Chemistry and Dental Integuments, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfield, 337-391.

[78]   Baier, R.E., Akers, C.K., Perlmutter, S., Dardik, H., Dardik, I. and Wodka, M. (1976) Processed Human Umbilical Cord Veins for Vascular Reconstructive Surgery. Transactions—American Society for Artificial Internal Organs, 22, 514-524.

[79]   Baier, R.E. (1978) Physical Chemistry of the Vascular Interface: Composition, Texture, and Adhesive Quality. In: Sawyer, P.N. and Kaplitt, M.J., Eds., Vascular Grafts, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 76-107.

[80]   Baier, R.E. and Loeb, G.I. (1971) Multiple Parameters Characterizing Interfacial Films of a Protein Analogue, Polymethylglutamate. In: Craver, C.D., Ed., Polymer Characterization: Interdisciplinary Approaches, Plenum Press, New York, 79-96.

[81]   Dardik, H., Baier, R.E., Meenaghan, M., Natiella, J., Weinberg, S., Turner, R., Sussman, B., Kahn, M., Ibrahim, I. and Dardik, I.I. (1982) Morphologic and Biophysical Assessment of Long Term Human Umbilical Cord Vein Implants Used as Vascular Conduits. Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics, 154, 17-26.

[82]   Baier, R.E. and Abbott, W.M. (1978) Comparative Biophysical Properties of the Flow Surfaces of Contemporary Vascular Grafts. In: Dardik, H., Ed., Grafts Materials in Vascular Surgery, Symposia Specialists, Inc., Miami, 70-103.

[83]   Baier, R.E. and Meyer, A.E. (1985) Surface Chemical Approaches to Decontamination and Disinfection. In: Lund, D., Plett, E. and Sandu, C., Eds., Fouling & Cleaning in Food Processing, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, 336-339.

[84]   Baier, R.E. (1984) Initial Events in Microbial Film Formation. In: Costlow, J.D. and Tipper, R.C., Eds., Marine Biodeterioration: An Interdisciplinary Study, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, 57-62.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-9720-9_8

[85]   Baier, R.E. and Weiss, L. (1975) Demonstration of the Involvement of Adsorbed Proteins in Cell Adhesion and Cell Growth on Solid Surfaces. In: Applied Chemistry at Protein Interfaces, Advances in Chemistry Series, Vol. 145, American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 300-307.

[86]   Baier, R.E. and Lippes, J. (1975) Glycoprotein Adsorption in Intrauterine Foreign Bodies. In: Applied Chemistry at Protein Interfaces, Advances in Chemistry Series, Vol. 145, American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 308-318.

[87]   Baier, R.E. and Thomas, E.B. (1996) The Ocean: The Eye of the Earth. Contact Lens Spectrum, 37-44.

[88]   Baier, R.E., Meyer, A.E., Natiella, J.R. and Carter, J.M. (1984) Surface Properties Determine Bioadhesive Outcomes: Methods and Results. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 18, 337-355.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.820180404

[89]   DePalma, V.A. and Baier, R.E. (1978) Microfouling of Metallic and Coated Metallic Flow Surfaces in Model Heat Exchange Cells. Proceedings of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Biofouling and Corrosion Symposium, U.S. Department of Energy, PNL-SA-7115, Washington DC, 89-106.

[90]   Baier, R.E. (1982) Comments on Cell Adhesion to Biomaterial Surfaces: Conflicts and Concerns. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 16, 173-175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.820160210

[91]   Baier, R.E. and DePalma, V.A. (1979) Flow Cell and Method for Continuously Monitoring Deposits on Flow Surfaces. 8 Claims. U.S. Patent No. 4, 175, 233.

[92]   Working Group on Physicochemical Characterization of Biomaterials, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Leading to Publication of “Guidelines for Physico-Chemical Characterization of Biomaterials”, NIH Publication No. 80-2186, September 1980.

[93]   Baier, R.E. and Zisman, W.A. (1970) Wettability and Multiple Attenuated Internal Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy of Solvent-Cast Thin Films of Polyamides. Macromolecules, 3, 462-468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma60016a017

[94]   Baier, R.E., Shafrin, E.G. and Zisman, W.A. (1968) Adhesion: Mechanisms that Assist or Impede It. Science, 162, 1360-1368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.162.3860.1360

[95]   Baier, R.E., Meyer, A.E., DePalma, V.A., King, R.W. and Fornalik, M.S. (1983) Surface Microfouling during the Induction Period. Journal of Heat Transfer, 105, 618-624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.3245630

[96]   Baier, R.E., Forsberg, R.L., Meyer, A.E. and Lundquist, D.C. (2014) Ballast Tank Biofilms Resist Water Exchange but Distribute Dominant Species. Management of Biological Invasions, 5, 241-244. (Special ICAIS Issue)
http://dx.doi.org/10.3391/mbi.2014.5.3.07

[97]   Baier, R.E., Mack, E.J., Rogers, C.W., Pilie, R.J. and DePalma, V.A. (1981) Source Assessment of Atmospheric Aerosols: Spectroscopic Data from a Rapid Field Technique. Optical Engineering, 20, 866-872.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.7972828

[98]   Vargo, T.G., Hook, D.J., Gardella, J.A., Eberhardt, M.A., Meyer, A.E. and Baier, R.E. (1991) A Multitechnique Surface Analytical Study of a Segmented Block Copolymer Poly (Ether-Urethane) Modified through an H2O Radio Frequency Glow Discharge. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, 29, 535-545.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pola.1991.080290410

[99]   Boretos, J.W., Pierce, W.S., Baier, R.E., Leroy, A.F. and Donachy, H.J. (1975) Surface and Bulk Characteristics of a Polyether Urethane for Artificial Hearts. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 9, 237-340.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.820090308

[100]   Pierce, W.S., Donachy, J.H., Rosenberg, G. and Baier, R.E. (1980) Calcification inside Artificial Hearts: Inhibition by Warfarin-Sodium. Science, 208, 601-603. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.7367883

[101]   Baier, R.E. and Kurusz, M. (2012) Understanding Blood/Material Interactions: Contributions from the Columbia University Biomaterials Seminar. ASAIO Journal, 58, 450-454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAT.0b013e3182631e3e

[102]   Baier, R.E. (1987) Selected Methods of Investigation for Blood-Contact Surfaces. In: Leonard, E.F., Turitto, V.T. and Vroman, L., Eds., Blood in Contact with Natural and Artificial Surfaces, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 516, 68-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1987.tb33031.x

[103]   Baier, R.E., DePalma, V.A., Goupil, D.W. and Cohen, E. (1985) Human Platelet Spreading on Substrata of Known Surface Chemistry. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 19, 1157-1167.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.820190922

[104]   Baier, R.E., Meyer, A.E. and Natiella, J.R. (1992) Implant Surface Physics and Chemistry: Improvements and Impediments to Bioadhesion. In: Laney, W.R. and Tolman, D.E., Eds., Tissue Integration in Oral, Orthopedic, and Maxillofacial Reconstruction, Quintessence Publishing Co., Inc., Chicago, 240-249.

[105]   Banas, M.D. and Baier, R.E. (2000) Accelerated Mineralization of Prosthetic Heart Valves. Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals Science and Technology, 354, 249-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10587250008023619

[106]   Sendax, V.I. and Baier, R.E. (1992) Improved Integration Potential for Calcium-Phosphate-Coated Implants after Glow Discharge and Water Storage. Dental Clinics of North America, 36, 221-224.

[107]   Baier, R.E. (1981) Catheter for Long-Term Emplacement. 8 Claims. U.S. Patent No. 4, 266, 999.

[108]   Baier, R.E. (2002) A Challenging Anomaly—Glass that Does Not Clot Blood! The Glass Researcher, 12, 23-24.

[109]   Baier, R.E. and Meyer, A.E. (1988) Implant Surface Preparation. International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, 3, 9-20.

[110]   Baier, R.E., Carter, J.M., Sorenson, S.E., Meyer, A.E., McGown, B.D. and Kasprzak, S.A. (1992) Radiofrequency Gas Plasma (Glow Discharge) Disinfection of Dental Operative Instruments, Including Handpieces. Journal of Oral Implantology, 18, 236-242.

[111]   Glantz, P.O., Baier, R.E. and Christersson, C.E. (1996) Biochemical and Physiological Considerations for Modeling Biofilms in the Oral Cavity: A Review. Dental Materials, 12, 208-214.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0109-5641(96)80024-8

[112]   Baier, R.E. and DePalma, V.A. (1971) The Relation of the Internal Surface of Grafts to Thrombosis. In: Dale, W.A., Ed., Management of Arterial Occlusive Disease, Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc., Chicago, 147-163.

[113]   Gould, J.A., Liebler, B., Baier, R., Benson, J., Boretos, J., Callahan, T., Canty, E., Compton, R., Marlowe, D., O’Holla, R., Page, B., Paulson, J. and Swanson, C. (1993) Biomaterials Availability: Development of a Characterization Strategy for Interchanging Silicone Polymers in Implantable Medical Devices. Journal of Applied Biomaterials, 4, 355-358.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jab.770040410

[114]   Baier, R.E., Loeb, G.I. and Wallace, G.T. (1971) Role of an Artificial Boundary in Modifying Blood Proteins. Federation Proceedings, Federation of AmerSoc for Experimental Biol, Bethesda, Vol. 30, 1523-1538.

[115]   Tietze, C. (1966) Contraception with Intrauterine Devices. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 96, 1043- 1054.

[116]   Glantz, P.O., Arnebrant, T., Nylander, T. and Baier, R.E. (1999) Bioadhesion—A Phenomenon with Multiple Dimensions. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 57, 238-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/000163599428634

[117]   Baier, R.E. (1980) Substrata Influences on the Adhesion of Microorganisms and Their Resultant New Surface Properties. In: Bitton, G. and Marshall, K.S., Eds., Adsorption of Microorganisms, Wiley-Interscience Publishers, Hoboken, 59-104.

[118]   Baier, R.E. (1970) Surface Properties Influencing Biological Adhesion. In: Manly, R.S., Ed., Adhesion in Biological Systems, Academic Press, New York, 15-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-469050-9.50007-7

[119]   Baier, R.E., Dutton, R.C. and Gott, V.L. (1970) Surface Chemical Features of Blood Vessel Walls and of Synthetic Materials Exhibiting Thromboresistance. In: Blank, M., Ed., Surface Chemistry of Biological Systems, Plenum Press, New York, 235-260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-9005-7_14

[120]   Baier, R.E. (1975) Blood Compatibility of Synthetic Polymers: Perspective and Problems. In: Kronenthal, R.L., Oser, Z. and Martin, E., Eds., Polymers in Medicine and Surgery, Plenum Press, New York, 139-159.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-7744-3_10

[121]   Baier, R.E., DePalma, V.A., Meyer, A.E., King, R.W. and Fornalik, M.S. (1981) Control of Heat Exchange Surface Microfouling by Material and Process Variations. In: Chenoweth, J.M. and Impagliazzo, M., Eds., Fouling in Heat Exchange Equipment, HTD-Vol. 17, AmerSoc Mechanical Engineers, New York, 97-103.

[122]   King, R.W., Meyer, A.E., Ziegler, R.C. and Baier, R.E. (1981) New Flow Cell Technology for Assessing Primary Biofouling in Oceanic Heat Exchangers. Proceedings of the 8th Ocean Energy Conference, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington DC, 431-436.

[123]   Baier, R.E., Meyer, A.E. and King, R.W. (1988) Improved Flow-Cell Techniques for Assessing Marine Microfouling and Corrosion. In: Thompson, M.F., Sarojini, R. and Nagabhushanam, R., Eds., Marine Biodeterioration, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co., Ltd., New Delhi, 385-394.

[124]   Forsberg, R.L., Baier, R.E. and Meyer, A.E. (2014) Sampling and Experiments with Biofilms in the Environment: Part 2, Sampling from Large Structures Such as Ballast Tanks. In: Dobretsov, S., Thomason, J.C. and Williams, D.N., Eds., Biofouling Methods, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.

[125]   Baier, R.E., Meyer, A.E. and Forsberg, R.L. (1997) Certification of Properties of Nontoxic Fouling-Release Coatings Exposed to Abrasion and Long-Term Immersion. Naval Research Reviews, 49, 60-65.

[126]   Baier, R.E., Meyer, A.E., Forsberg, R.L. and Ricotta, M.S. (1997) Intrinsic Drag Reduction of Biofouling-Resistant Coatings. Proceedings, Emerging Nonmetallic Materials for the Marine Environment, U.S.-Pacific Rim Workshop Sponsored by the U.S. Office of Naval Research, Honolulu, 1-36 through 1-40.

[127]   Baier, R.E., Gucinski, H., Meenaghan, M.A., Wirth, J. and Glantz, P.O. (1984) Biophysical Studies of Mucosal Surfaces. In: Glantz, P.O., Leach, S.A. and Ericson, T., Eds., Oral Interfacial Reactions of Bone, Soft Tissue & Saliva, IRL Press Ltd, Oxford, 83-95.

[128]   Baier, R.E. and Meyer, A.E. (1983) Surface Energetics and Biological Adhesion. In: Mittal, K.L., Ed., Physiochemical Aspects of Polymer Surfaces, Vol. 2, Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, 895-909.

[129]   Baier, R.E. (1973) Influence of the Initial Surface Condition of Materials on Bioadhesion. Proceedings, Third International Congress on Marine Corrosion and Fouling, Northwestern University Press, Evanston, 633-639.

[130]   Fletcher, R.L. and Baier, R.E. (1984) Influence of Surface Energy on the Development of the Green Alga Enteromorpha. Marine Biology Letters, 5, 251-254.

[131]   Meyer, A., Baier, R., Wood, C.D., Stein, J., Truby, K., Holm, E., Montemarano, J., Kavanagh, C., Nedved, B., Smith, C., Swain, G. and Wiebe, D. (2006) Contact Angle Anomalies Indicate that Surface-Active Eluates from Silicone Coatings Inhibit the Adhesive Mechanisms of Fouling Organisms. Biofouling, 22, 411-423.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08927010601025473

[132]   Glantz, P.O.J., Arnebrant, T., Nylander, T. and Baier, R.E. (1999) Bioadhesion—A Phenomenon with Multiple Dimensions. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 57, 238-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/000163599428634

[133]   Baier, R.E. (1992) Influence of Surface and Fluid Conditions on Thrombus Generation. Proceedings of the Amer Acad of Cardiovascular Perfusion, 13, 143-146.

[134]   Dutton, R.C., Webber, A.J., Johnson, S.A. and Baier, R.E. (1969) Microstructure of Initial Thrombus Formation on Foreign Materials. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 3, 13-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.820030104

[135]   Nayak, S.C., Baier, R.E., Meyer, A.E. and Abuhaimed, T. (2010) Improvement of Root Canal X-Ray Imaging by Delmopinol Pretreatment-Assisted Contrast Media Infiltration. Northeast Bioengineering Conference Proceedings, Columbia University, New York, 26-28 March 2010, ABS-026, 39.

[136]   L’Italien, G.J., Megerman, J., Hasson, J.E., Meyer, A.E., Baier, R.E. and Abbott, W.M. (1986) Compliance Changes in Glutaraldehyde-Treated Arteries. Journal of Surgical Research, 41, 182-188.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-4804(86)90023-5

[137]   Meyer, A.E., King, R.W., Baier, R.E. and Fornalik, M.S. (1985) A Field Study of Fouling of Test Surfaces Exposed to Flowing Brackish River Water. Proceedings, Condenser Biofouling Control Symposium, Electric Power Research Institute.

[138]   Baier, R.E., Meyer, A.E., Akers, C.K., Natiella, J.R., Meenaghan, M.A. and Carter, J.M. (1982) Degradation Effects of Conventional Steam Sterilization on Biomaterial Surfaces. Biomaterials, 3, 241-245.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0142-9612(82)90027-8

[139]   Park, J.H., Olivares-Navarrete, R., Baier, R.E., Meyer, A.E., Tannenbaum, R., Boyan, B.D. and Schwartz, Z. (2012) Effect of Cleaning and Sterilization on Titanium Implant Surface Properties and Cellular Response. Acta Biomaterialia, 8, 1966-1975. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2011.11.026

[140]   White, J.A., Baier, R.E., Meyer, A.E., Burke, R.P. and Hausmann, E.M. (2000) Biomechanical and Biochemical Paths to Dystrophic Mineralization of Stented Cardiovascular Tissues. In: Vossoughi, J., Kipshidze, N. and Karanian, J.W., Eds., Stent Graft Update, Chapter 5, Medical and Engineering Publishers, Inc., Washington DC, 37-65.

 
 
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