OJCM  Vol.5 No.1 , January 2015
Controlling the Energy Absorption Capability of a Unidirectional Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic Tube Using a Double-Sided Plug
ABSTRACT
Quasi-static and dynamic crush tests of a unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) circular tube were performed, and its energy absorption capability was controlled using a double-sided plug. It was revealed in the quasi-static crush test that its energy absorption capability was controlled significantly from 8 to 178 kJ/kg by changing the curvature of the plug. The range of energy absorption covers almost all types of CFRP tube reported in the literature. A dynamic crush test up to 55 km/h was then performed by drop weight impact tests. The energy absorption capability of the CFRP tube in the dynamic crush test was very similar to that in the quasi-static crush test. A simple design concept of energy absorption for a CFRP tube, using the double-sided plug, was proposed.

Cite this paper
Ueda, M. , Tsuji, T. and Jeong, T. (2015) Controlling the Energy Absorption Capability of a Unidirectional Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic Tube Using a Double-Sided Plug. Open Journal of Composite Materials, 5, 30-40. doi: 10.4236/ojcm.2015.51006.
References
[1]   Mamalis, A.G., Manolakos, D.E., Demosthenous, G.A. and Ioannidis, M.B. (1998) Crashworthiness of Composite Thin-Walled Structures. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

[2]   Farley, G.L. (1987) Crash Energy Absorbing Subfloor Beam Structure. Journal of the American Helicopter Society, 32, 28-38.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4050/JAHS.32.28

[3]   Jackson, K.E. and Lyle, K.H. (2003) Full-Scale Crash Test and Finite Element Simulation of a Composite Prototype Helicopter. NASA/TP-2003-212641.

[4]   Jacob, G.C., Fellers, J.F., Simunovic, S. and Starbuck, J.M. (2002) Energy Absorption in Polymer Composites for Automotive Crashworthiness. Journal of Composite Materials, 36, 813-850.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021998302036007164

[5]   Auto Technology (2003) Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren: Technology for the 21st-Century. 28-31.

[6]   Bisagni, C., Di Pietro, G., Fraschini, L. and Terletti, D. (2005) Progressive Crushing of Fibre-Reinforced Composite Structural Components of a Formula One Racing Car. Composite Structures, 68, 491-503.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2004.04.015

[7]   Aoki, Y., Kim, H-S. and Ben, G. (2009) Impact Strength and Response Behaviour of CFRP Guarder Belt for Side Collision of Automobiles. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 14, 469-476.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13588260902826513

[8]   Kawamura, N. (2011) The Light Weight Body Structure Technologies of Lexus LFA. Proceeding of 12th Japan International SAMPE Symposium, Tokyo, 9-11 November 2011.

[9]   Yang, Y., Wu, X. and Hamada, H. (2013) Application of Fibre-Reinforced Composites Beam as Energy Absorption Member in Vehicle. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 18, 103-109.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13588265.2012.756309

[10]   Park, C.-K., Kan, C.-D. and Hollowell, W.T. (2014) Evaluation of Crashworthiness of a Carbon-Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Ladder Frame in a Body-on-Frame Vehicle. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 19, 27-41.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13588265.2013.830940

[11]   Hull, D. (1991) A Unified Approach to Progressive Crushing of Fibre-Reinforced Composite Tubes. Composites Science and Technology, 40, 377-421.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0266-3538(91)90031-J

[12]   Hamada, H., Ramakrishna, S. and Saito, H. (1996) Effect of Fiber Orientation on the Energy Absorption Capability of Carbon Fiber/PEEK Composite Tubes. Journal of Composite Materials, 30, 947-963.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002199839603000806

[13]   Ochelski, S. and Gotowicki, P. (2008) Experimental Assessment of Energy Absorption Capability of Carbon-Epoxy and Glass-Epoxy Composites. Composite Structures, 87, 215-224.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2008.01.010

[14]   Farley, G.L. (1986) Effect of Specimen Geometry on the Energy Absorption Capability of Composite Materials. Journal of Composite Materials, 20, 390-400.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002199838602000406

[15]   Mamalis, A.G., Yuan, Y.B. and Viegelahn, G.L. (1992) Collapse of Thin-Wall Composite Sections Subjected to High Speed Axial Loading. International Journal of Vehicle Design, 13, 564-579.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJVD.1992.061748

[16]   Hamada, H. and Ramakrishna, S. (1995) Scaling Effects in the Energy Absorption of Carbon Fiber/PEEK Composite Tubes. Composites Science and Technology, 55, 211-221.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0266-3538(95)00081-X

[17]   Mamalis, A.G., Manolakos, D.E., Ioannidis, M.B. and Papapostolou, D.P. (2006) The Static and Dynamic Axial Collapse of CFRP Square Tubes: Finite Element Modelling. Composite Structures, 74, 213-225.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2005.04.006

[18]   Fleming, D.C. (2011) Modelling Composite Crushing Initiation Using a Cohesive Element Formulation. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 16, 475-485.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13588265.2011.606999

[19]   Feraboli, P., Wade, B., Deleo, F., Rassaian, M., Higgins, M. and Byar, A. (2011) LS-DYNA MAT54 Modeling of the Axial Crushing of a Composite Tape Sinusoidal Specimen. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 42, 1809-1825.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2011.08.004

[20]   Boria, S. and Belingardi, G. (2012) Numerical Investigation of Energy Absorbers in Composite Materials for Automotive Applications. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 17, 345-356.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13588265.2011.648516

[21]   Siromani, D., Awerbuch, J. and Tan, T.M. (2014) Finite Element Modeling of the Crushing Behavior of Thin-Walled CFRP Tubes under Axial Compression. Composites Part B: Engineering, 64, 50-58.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2014.04.008

[22]   Abdel-Haq, M., Broggiato, G.B. and Newaz. G.M. (1999) Constrain Effects on Energy Absorption in Unidirectional PMC Tubes. Journal of Composite Materials, 33, 774-793.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002199839903300901

[23]   Quek, S.C., Waas, A.M., Homann, J. and Agaram, V. (2001) The Crushing Response of Braided and CSM Glass Reinforced Composite Tubes. Composite Structures, 52, 103-112.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0263-8223(00)00195-1

[24]   Beard, S.J. and Chang, F.K. (2002) Energy Absorption of Braided Composite Tubes. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 7, 191-206.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1533/cras.2002.0214

[25]   Warrior, N.A., Turner, T.A., Cooper, E. and Ribeaux, M. (2008) Effect of Boundary Conditions on the Energy Absorption of Thin-Walled Polymer Composite Tubes under Axial Crushing. Thin-Walled Structures, 46, 905-913.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2008.01.023

[26]   Yang, Y., Nakai, A. and Hamada, H. (2009) A Method to Improve the Energy Absorption Capability of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Tubes. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 14, 315-322.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13588260802674120

[27]   Xiao, X., McGregor, C., Vaziri, R. and Poursartip, A. (2009) Progress in Braided Composite Tube Crush Simulation. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 36, 711-719.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2008.09.006

[28]   Siromani, D., Henderson, G., Mikita, D., Mirarchi, K., Park, R., Smolko, J., Awerbuch, J. and Tan, T.M. (2014) An Experimental Study on the Effect of Failure Trigger Mechanisms on the Energy Absorption Capability of CFRP Tubes under Axial Crushing. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 64, 25-35.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2014.04.019

[29]   Jacob, G.C., Fellers, J.F., Starbuck, J.M. and Simunovic, S. (2004) Crashworthiness of Automotive Composite Material Systems. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 92, 3218-3225.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.20336

[30]   Ueda, M., Anzai, S. and Kubo, T. (2014) Progressive Crushing of a Unidirectional CFRP Plate with V-Shaped Trigger. Advanced Composite Materials.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09243046.2014.882540

[31]   Thornton, P.H. and Jeryan, R.A. (1988) Crash Energy Management in Composite Automotive Structures. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 7, 167-180.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0734-743X(88)90024-3

[32]   Farley, G.L. (1991) The Effects of Crushing Speed on the Energy-Absorption Capability of Composite Tubes. Journal of Composite Materials, 25, 1314-1329.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002199839102501004

[33]   Lavoie, J.A. and Kellas, S. (1996) Dynamic Crush Tests of Energy-Absorbing Laminated Composite Plate. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 27, 467-475.

 
 
Top