JSEA  Vol.7 No.13 , December 2014
Ontologies for Software Project Management: A Review
Software Project Management is a knowledge intensive process that can benefit substantially from ontology development and ontology engineering. Ontology development could facilitate or improve substantially the software development process through the improvement of knowledge management, the increase of software and artefacts reusability, and the establishment of internal consistency within project management processes of various phases of software life cycle. A large number of ontologies have been developed attempting to address various software engineering aspects, such as requirements engineering, components reuse, domain modelling, etc. In this paper, we present a systematic literature review focusing on software project management ontologies. The literature review, among other, has identified lack of standardization in terminology and concepts, lack of systematic domain modelling and use of ontologies mainly in prototype ontology systems that address rather limited aspects of software project management processes.

Cite this paper
Fitsilis, P. , Gerogiannis, V. and Anthopoulos, L. (2014) Ontologies for Software Project Management: A Review. Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, 7, 1096-1110. doi: 10.4236/jsea.2014.713097.
[1]   Rose, K.H. (2013) A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide)—Fifth Edition. Project Management Journal, 44, e1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmj.21345

[2]   International Project Management Association (2006) ICB-IPMA Competence Baseline Version 3.0. International Project Management Association, Nijkerk.

[3]   Office of Government Commerce (2009) Directing Successful Projects with PRINCE2. The Stationery Office, Norwich.

[4]   Sommerville, I. (2004) Software Engineering. International Computer Science Series.

[5]   Standish Group (2009) Chaos Summary 2009: The 10 Laws of CHAOS.

[6]   Charette, R.N. (2005) Why Software Fails [Software Failure]. IEEE Spectrum, 42, 42-49.

[7]   Srikantaiah, T., Srikantaiah, T.K., Koenig, M.E. and Al-Hawamdeh, S., Eds. (2010) Convergence of Project Management and Knowledge Management. Scarecrow Press, Plymouth.

[8]   Gruber, T.R. (1995) Toward Principles for the Design of Ontologies Used for Knowledge Sharing? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 43, 907-928.

[9]   Suárez-Figueroa, M.C., García-Castro, R., Villazón-Terrazas, B. and Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011) Essentials in Ontology Engineering: Methodologies, Languages, and Tools. CIB Conference W078-W012—2nd Workshop on EEB Data Models, Sophia Antipolis, 26-28 October 2011, 9-21.

[10]   Devedzic, V. (2002) Understanding Ontological Engineering. Communications of the ACM, 45, 136-144.

[11]   Motik, B., Patel-Schneider, P. and Parsia, B. (2009) OWL 2 Web Ontology Language: Structural Specification and Functional-Style Syntax. World Wide Web Consortium. W3C Candidate Recom-mendation.

[12]   Brooks Jr., F.P. (1995) The Mythical Man-Month, Anniversary Edition: Essays on Software Engineering. Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River.

[13]   Beck, K. (2001) Planning Extreme Programming. Addison-Wesley Professional, Boston.

[14]   Coad, P., Luca, J.D. and Lefebvre, E. (1999) Java Modeling Color with Uml: Enterprise Components and Process with Cdrom. Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River.

[15]   Carmichael, A. and Haywood, D. (2002) Better Software Faster. Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference.

[16]   Augustine, S., Payne, B., Sencindiver, F. and Woodcock, S. (2005) Agile Project Management: Steering from the Edges. Communications of the ACM, 48, 85-89.

[17]   Gasevic, D., Kaviani, N. and Milanovic, M. (2009) Ontologies and Software Engineering. In: Staab, S. and Studer, R., Eds., Handbook on Ontologies, Springer, Berlin, 593-615.

[18]   Happel, H.J. and Seedorf, S. (2006) Applications of Ontologies in Software Engineering. Proceedings of Workshop on Sematic Web Enabled Software Engineering (SWESE) on the ISWC, Athens, 6 November 2006, 5-9.

[19]   Ruiz, F. and Hilera, J.R. (2006) Using Ontologies in Software Engineering and Technology. In: Calero, C., Ruiz, F. and Piattini, M., Eds., Ontologies for Software Engineering and Software Technology, Springer, Berlin, 49-102.

[20]   Zhao, Y., Dong, J. and Peng, T. (2009) Ontology Classification for Semantic-Web-Based Software Engineering. IEEE Transactions on Services Computing, 2, 303-317.

[21]   Saunders, M.N., Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2011) Research Methods for Business Students. 5th Edition, Pearson Education, Essex.

[22]   Abels, S., Ahlemann, F., Hahn, A., Hausmann, K. and Strickmann, J. (2006) PROMONT—A Project Management Ontology as a Reference for Virtual Project Organizations. In: On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems 2006: OTM 2006 Workshops, Springer, Berlin, 813-823.

[23]   Hughes, R.T. (2010) Project Management Process Ontologies: A Proof of Concept. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference of UK Academy for Information Systems, Oxford, 23-24 March 2010.

[24]   Sheeba, T., Krishnan, R. and Justin Bernard, M. (2012) An Ontology in Project Management Knowledge Domain. International Journal of Computer Applications, 56, 1-7.

[25]   Bodea, C., Trandafir, I. and Borozan, A.M. (2008) Assessment of Project Management Knowledge Using Semantic Networks in the SinPers System. Proceedings of the 22nd IPMA World Congress on Project Management, Rome, 9-11 November 2008, 1314-1319.

[26]   Ruiz-Bertol, F.J., Rodríguez, D. and Dolado, J. (2011) Applying Rules to an Ontology for Project Management. Proceedings of the 16th Spanish Conference on Software Engineering and Databases, Coruña, 5-7 September 2011, 5-7.

[27]   Aramo-Immonen, H. (2009) Project Management Ontology—The Organizational Learning Perspective. Tampereen teknillinen yliopisto, Julkaisu-Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, 836.

[28]   Dong, H., Hussain, F.K. and Chang, E. (2011) ORPMS: An Ontology-Based Real-Time Project Monitoring System in the Cloud. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 17, 1161-1182.

[29]   Wong, S.M., Lafaye, J.Y. and Boursier, P. (2010) Developing PMIS for Business Projects Based on Social Science Research Findings and Ontology Modelling. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems (IADIS’10), Porto, 18-20 March 2010, 283-291.

[30]   Lai, Y.C., Christiansson, P. and Svidt, K. (2002) IT in Collaborative Building Design (IT-CODE). Proceedings of the European Conference on Information and Communication Technology Advances and Innovation in the Knowledge Society, Salford, 18-21 November 2002, 323-331.

[31]   Smith S.F. and Becker, M.A. (1997) An Ontology for Constructing Scheduling Systems. In: Working Notes of 1997 AAAI Symposium on Ontological Engineering, AAAI Press, Palo Alto, 120-127.

[32]   Rajpathak, D., Motta, E. and Roy, R. (2001) A Generic Task Ontology for Scheduling Applications. Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Las Vegas, 25-28 June 2001.

[33]   Mochol, M., Oldakowski, R. and Heese, R. (2004) Ontology Based Recruitment Process. In: Dadam, W.P. and Reichert, M., Eds., GI Jahrestagung 2, Springer, Heidelberg, 198-202.

[34]   Dorn, J., Naz, T. and Pichlmair, M. (2007) Ontology Development for Human Resource Management. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Knowledge Management, Vienna, 27-28 August 2007, 109-120.

[35]   Schmidt, A. and Kunzmann, C. (2006) Towards Human Resource Development Ontology for Combining Competence Management and Technology-Enhanced Workplace Learning. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4278, 1078-1087.

[36]   Schmidt, A. and Kunzmann, C. (2007) Human Resource Development with Ontology-Based Competency Catalogs. In: Cunningham and Cunningham, Eds., eChallenges 07, Den Haag.

[37]   Gómez-Pérez, A., Ramírez, J. and Villazón-Terrazas, B. (2007) An Ontology for Modelling Human Resources Management Based on Standards. In: Apolloni, B., Howlett, R.J. and Jain, L., Eds., Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, Springer, Berlin, 534-541.

[38]   Peng, G.C. and Nunes, M. (2009) Surfacing ERP Exploitation Risks through a Risk Ontology. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 109, 926-942. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02635570910982283

[39]   Lin, Y., Hilaire, V., Gaud, N. and Koukam, A. (2012) Scrum Conceptualization Using K-CRIO Ontology. In: Data- Driven Process Discovery and Analysis, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, 189-211.

[40]   Santana, A., Lóscio, B.F. and Freitas, F. (2013) A Scrum Application Ontology for Support Historical Data Management of Projects. Centro de Informática—Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife.

[41]   Schwaber, K. (2004) Agile Project Management with Scrum. Microsoft Press, Redmond.

[42]   Zualkernan, I.A. (2008) An Ontology-Driven Approach for Generating Assessments for the SCRUM Process. In: Fujita, H. and Zualkernan, I.A., Eds., New Trends in Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques. IOS Press, The Netherlands.

[43]   Valaski, J., Malucelli, A., Reinehr, S.S. and Santos, R. (2011) Ontology to Classify Learning Material in Software Engineering Knowledge Domain. In: ONTOBRAS-MOST, UFPE, Recife, 37-47.

[44]   Bourque, P. and Fairley, R., Eds. (2014) SWEBOK 3.0: Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge. IEEE Computer Society Press. http://www.computer.org/portal/web/swebok

[45]   Rational Software (2011) Rational Unified Process Best Practices for Software Development Teams, Rational Software. White Paper TP026B, Rev 11/01, Rational Software, Cupertino.

[46]   Parson, D. (2011) Agile Software Development Methodology, an Ontological Analysis.

[47]   Parsons, D. (2011) An Ontology of Agile Aspect Oriented Software Development. Research Letters in the Information and Mathematical Sciences, 15, 1-11.

[48]   Ceravolo, P., Damiani, E., Marchesi, M., Pinna, S. and Zavetarelli, F. (2003) A Ontology-Based Process Modelling for XP. Proceedings of the Tenth Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, Chiang Mai, 10-12 December 2003, 236- 242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/APSEC.2003.1254376

[49]   Siddiqui, F. and Alam, M.A. (2012) Ontology Based Feature Driven Development Life Cycle. International Journal of Computer Science Issues, 9, 207-212.

[50]   CMMI Product Team (2010) CMMI for Development, Version 1.3.

[51]   Soydan, G.H. and Kokar, M. (2006) An OWL Ontology for Representing the CMMI-SW Model. Proceedings of ISWC 2006 Workshop on Semantic Web Enabled Software Engineering, Athens, 6 November 2006.

[52]   Sharifloo, A.A., Motazedi, Y., Shamsfard, M. and Dehkharghani, R. (2008) An Ontology for CMMI-ACQ Model. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies: From Theory to Applications (ICTTA), Damascus, 7-11 April 2008, 1-6.

[53]   Suggested Upper Merged Ontology (SUMO) http://www.ontologyportal.org

[54]   Gazel, S., Akçapinar Sezer, E. and Tarhan, A. (2012) An Ontology Based Infrastructure to Support CMMI Based Software Process Assessment. Gazi University Journal of Science, 25, 155-164.

[55]   Rungratri, S. and Usanavasin, S. (2008) Project Assets Ontology (PAO) to Support Gap Analysis for Organization Process Improvement Based on CMMI. In: Making Globally Distributed Software Development a Success Story, Springer, Berlin, 76-87.

[56]   Lee, C.S., Wang, M.H. and Chen, J.J. (2008) Ontology-Based Intelligent Decision Support Agent for CMMI Project Monitoring and Control. International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, 48, 62-76.

[57]   Lee, C.S. and Wang, M.H. (2009) Ontology-Based Computational Intelligent Multi-Agent and Its Application to CMMI Assessment. Applied Intelligence, 30, 203-219.

[58]   Liao, L., Qu, Y. and Leung, H. (2005) A Software Process Ontology and Its Application. Proceedings of ISWC 2005 Workshop on Semantic Web Enabled Software Engineering, Galway, 6 November 2005, 6-10.

[59]   ISO (2004) ISO/IEC 15504–2:2003/Cor.1:2004(E). Information Technology—Process Assessment—Part 2: Performing an Assessment. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.

[60]   Líska, M. and Navrat, P. (2010) An Approach to Project Planning Employing Software and Systems Engineering Meta-Model Represented by an Ontology. Computer Science and Information Systems, 7, 721-736.

[61]   OMG (2008) Software & Systems Process Engineering Meta-Model Specification, Version 2.0. Object Management Group, Needham. http://doc.omg.org/formal/08-04-01.pdf

[62]   Falbo, R.A. and Bertollo, G. (2010) A Software Process Ontology as a Common Vocabulary about Software Processes. International Journal of Business Process Integration and Management, 4, 239-250.

[63]   Falbo, R.A., Barcellos, M.P., Nardi, J.C. and Guizzardi, G. (2013) Organizing Ontology Design Patterns as Ontology Pattern Languages. ESWC’2013.

[64]   Wongthongtham, P., Chang, E., Dillon, T. and Sommerville, I. (2009) Development of a Software Engineering Ontology for Multisite Software Development. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 21, 1205-1217.

[65]   Klieber, W., Sabol, V., Muhr, M., Kern, R., Öttl, G. and Granitzer, M. (2009) Knowledge Discovery Using the KnowMiner Framework. Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference Information Systems, Barcelona, 25-27 February 2009, 9.

[66]   Guizzardi, G., de Almeida Falbo, R. and Guizzardi, R.S. (2008) Grounding Software Domain Ontologies in the Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO): The Case of the ODE Software Process Ontology. Proceedings of CIbSE, Recife, 13-17 February 2008, 127-140.

[67]   Sarantis, D. and Askounis, D. (2009) A Project Management Ontology as a Reference for E-Government Projects. Proceedings of International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions, London, 9-12 November 2009, 1-8.

[68]   Magoutas, B., Halaris, C. and Mentzas, G. (2007) An Ontology for the Multi-Perspective Evaluation of Quality in E-Government Services. Electronic Government, 4656, 318-329.

[69]   Staniszkis, E. and Nowicki, B. (2004) ICONS Based Knowledge Management in the Process of Structural Funds Projects Preparation. Proceedings of e-Challenges e-2004 Conference, Vienna, 27-29 October 2004.

[70]   Mendes, O. and Abran, A. (2005) Issues in the Development of an Ontology for an Emerging Engineering Discipline. Proceedings of the First Workshop on Ontology, Conceptualizations and Epistemology for Software and Systems Engineering (ONTOSE), Alcalá de Henares, 9-10 June 2005, 139-144.

[71]   Sicilia, M., Cuadrado, J.J., Garcia, E., Rodriguez, D. and Hilera, J.R. (2005) The Evaluation of Ontological Representation of the SWEBOK as a Revision Tool. Proceedings of the 29th Annual International Computer Software and Application Conference (COMPSAC), Edinburgh, 26-28 July 2005, 26-28.

[72]   Hilera, J.R., Sánchez-Alonso, S., García, E.A. and Del Molino, C.J. (2005) OntoGLOSE: A Lightweight Software Engineering Ontology. Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Ontology, Conceptualizations and Epistemology for Software and Systems Engineering (ONTOSE), Alcalá de Henares, 9-10 June 2005, 9-10.

[73]   Settas, D. and Stamelos, I. (2007) Towards a Dynamic Ontology Based Software Project Management Antipattern Intelligent System. Proceedings of the 19th IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence, Patras, 29-31 October 2007, 186-193.

[74]   Ruiz, F., Vizcaíno, A., Piattini, M. and García, F. (2004) An Ontology for the Management of Software Maintenance Projects. International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, 14, 323-349.

[75]   Lin, S., Liu, F. and Loe, S. (2003) Building a Knowledge Base of IEEE/EAI 12207 and CMMI with Ontology. Proceedings of the Sixth International Protégé Workshop, Manchester, 7-9 July 2003.

[76]   García, F., Bertoa, M.F., Calero, C., Vallecillo, A., Ruíz, F., Piattini, M. and Genero, M. (2006) Towards a Consistent Terminology for Software Measurement. Information and Software Technology, 48, 631-644.

[77]   Girardi, R. and Faria, C. (2003) A Generic Ontology for the Specification of Domain Models. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Component Engineering Methodology (WCEM’03) at Second International Conference on Generative Programming and Component Engineering, Erfurt, 22-23 September 2003, 41-50.

[78]   González-Pérez, C. and Henderson-Sellers, B. (2006) An Ontology for Software Development Methodologies and Endeavours. In: Calero, C., Ruiz, F. and Piattini, M., Eds., Ontologies for Software Engineering and Software Technology, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 123-151.

[79]   Falbo, R.D.A., Natali, A.C.C., Mian, P.G., Bertollo, G. and Ruy, F.B. (2003) ODE: Ontology-Based Software Development Environment. IX Congreso Argentino de Ciencias de la Computación, La Plata, 6-7 October 2003, 1124-1135.