AiM  Vol.4 No.16 , December 2014
Enrichment of Artemia (Leach) nauplii with Canola Oil: Effect on Heros severus (Heckel) Larvae Performance and Environmental Stress
The effect of canola oil enriched Artemia (Leach) nauplii on growth, survival, resistance to environmental stresses of temperature and oxygen deficiency and fatty acid composition in severum fish, Heros severus (Heckel), larvae were investigated. The larvae (average weight 3 mg ± 0.83) were fed 4 times daily starting at the onset of exogenous feeding for 18 days. Triplicate groups of fish were offered one of two treatments: 1) newly hatched Artemia (Leach) nauplii (unenriched) and 2) canola oil enriched Artemia (Leach) nauplii. Then all groups of fish were switched to the commercial diet for an additional period of 18 days. Statistical analysis of growth after 18 days and at the end of the experiment (36 days), showed that the highest specific growth rates (9.65% ± 0.3), (17.44% ± 0.31) the average weight (17 mg ± 0.95), (65.2 mg ± 0.53) were observed in treatment 2 respectively, but there was no significant difference in survival rate between treatments. The best result of resistance to oxygen deficiency (5 min) was observed in larvae reared on treatment 2 with 75.67% ± 0.66 after 36 days. Result of temperature stress showed no significant difference between treatments. The larvae were also found to convert n-3 fatty acids to EPA and DHA.

Cite this paper
Tehrani, J. , Dorche, E. , Goli, S. and Akbary, P. (2014) Enrichment of Artemia (Leach) nauplii with Canola Oil: Effect on Heros severus (Heckel) Larvae Performance and Environmental Stress. Advances in Microbiology, 4, 1242-1249. doi: 10.4236/aim.2014.416134.
[1]   Ebrahimi Dorche, E., Motamedi Tehrani, J., Hossein Goli, S.A., Akbari, P. and Nezameslami, A. (2013) Effect of Nauplii of Artemia urmiana Enriched with Flaxseed Oil on the Growth and Survival of Cichlasoma severum Larvae. Journal of Fisheries Sciences and Technology, 3, 1-15. (In Persian)

[2]   Sorgeloos, P., Dhert, P. and Candreva, P. (2001) Use of Brine Shrimp Artemia spp., in Marine Fish Larviculture. Aquaculture, 200, 147-159.

[3]   Leger, P., Bengston, D.A. and Sorgeloos, P. (1987) The Nutritional Value of Artemia. Artemia Research and Its Application, Vol. 3. Universa Press Wettern, Belgium, 357-370.

[4]   Kiron, V., Fukuda, H., Takeuchi, T. and Watanabe, T. (1995) Essential Fatty Acid Nutrition and Defence Mechanisms in Rainbow Trout. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 111, 361-367.

[5]   Gapasin, R.S.J., Bombeo, R., Lavens, P., Sorgeloos, P. and Nelis, H. (1998) Enrichment of Live Food with Essential Fatty Acids and Vitamin C: Effects on Milkfish (Chanos chanos) Larval Performanace. Aquaculture, 162, 269-286.

[6]   Lim, L.C., Dhert, P., Chew, W.Y., Dermaux, V., Nelis, H. and Sorgeloos, P. (2002) Enhancment of Stress Resistance of Guppy Poecilia reticulate through Feeding with Vitamin C Supplement. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 33, 32-40.

[7]   Noori, F., Azari Takami, G. and Sorgeloos, P. (2005) Enrichment of Artemia with Essential Fattyacids, Lipid Emulsion and Vitamin C and Its Effect on the Performance of Acipenser persicus Larvae under the Effect of Salinity Stress. 5th International Symposium on Sturgeon, Ramsar, 9-13.

[8]   Ashraf, M., Bengtson, D.A. and Simpson, K.L. (1993) Effects of Dietary Fatty Acid Enrichment on Survival, Growth and Salinity-Stress-Test Performance of Inland Silversides. The Progressive Fish Culturist, 55, 280-283.<0280:EODFAE>2.3.CO;2

[9]   Halver, J.E. and Hardy, R.W. (2002) Fish Nutrition. In: Sargent, J.R., Tocher, D.R. and Bell, G., Eds., The Lipids, 3rd Edition, Academic Press, California, 182-246.

[10]   Zeratsky, K. (2009) Canola Oil: Does It Contain Toxins? Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 10 August 2011.

[11]   Sorgeloos, P., Lavens, P., Leger, Ph. and Tackaert, W. (1993) The Use of Artemia in Marine Fish Larviculture. Finfish Hatchery in Asia: Proceedings of Finfish Hatchery in Asia ’91, TML Conference Proceedings, 3, 73-86.

[12]   Lavens, P. and Sorgeloos, P. (1996) Manual on the Production and Use of Live Food for Aquaculture. FAO, Rome, 79-250.

[13]   Clawson, J.A. and Lovell, R.T. (1992) Improvement of Nutritional Value of Artemia for Hybrid Stripped Bass/White Bass (Morone saxatilis × M. chrysops) Larvae by n-3 HUFA Enrichment of Nauplii with Menhaden Oil. Aquaculture, 108, 125-134.

[14]   Agh, N. and Noori, F. (1997) Introduction of a Parthenogenetic Population of Artemia from Lagoons around Urmia Lake and Its Morphological Comparison with Artemia Urmiana. In: Moellem, T., Ed., Proceedings of the First Iranian Congress of Zoology, University of Teacher Education, Tehran, 17-18 September 1997.

[15]   Lara-Flors, M., Olvera-Novoa, M.A., Guzman-Mendez, B.E. and Lopez-Madrid, W. (2003) Use of Bacteria Streptococcus faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisisa as Growth Promoters in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquaculture, 216, 193-201.

[16]   Goli, S.A., Mat Sahri, M. and Kadivar, M. (2008) Enzymatic Interesterification of Structured Lipids Containing Conjugated Linoleic Acid with Palm Stearin for Possible Margarine Production. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 110, 1102-1108.

[17]   Koueta, N., Boucaud-Camou, E. and Noel, B. (2002) Effect of Enriched Natural Diet on Survival and Growth of Juvenile Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. Aquaculture, 203, 293-310.

[18]   Ako, H., Tamani, C.S., Bass, P. and Lee, C.S. (1994) Enhancing the Resistance to Physical Stress in Larvae of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus) by the Feeding of Enriched Artemia Nauplii. Aquaculture, 122, 81-90.

[19]   Meshkini, S. (2003) The Effect of Vitamin C-Enriched Artemia Urmianaon Growth, Survival and Resistance to Environmental Stresses. Ph.D. Thesis of Veterinary Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, 139 p. (In Persian)

[20]   Taiebi, A. (2001) Effects of Feeding with HUFA Enriched Artemia on Growth, Survival and Resistance Penaeus indicus Post Larva, to Salinity Stress. M.Sc. Thesis of Fisheris Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, 63 p. (In Persian)

[21]   Mourente, G., Rodriguez, A., Tocher, D.R. and Sargent, J.R. (1993) Effect of Dietary Docosahexenoic Acid (DHA;22:6n-3) on Lipid and Fatty Acid Compositions and Growth in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.) Larvae during First Feeding. Aquaculture, 112, 79-98.

[22]   Hosseinpour, H., Hafezieh, M., Kamarudin, M.S., Bin Saad, C.R., Abd Sattar, M.K., Agh, N., Valinassab, T. and Sharifian, M. (2010) Effects of Enriched Artemia Urmiana with HUFA on Growth, Survival, and Fatty Acids Composition of the Persian Sturgeon Larvae (Acipenser persicus). Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 9, 61-72.

[23]   Smith, D.M., Hunter, B.J., Allen, G.L., Roberts, D.C.K., Booth, M.A. and Glecroos, B.D. (2004) Essential Fatty Acids in Diet on Silver Perch, Bidyanus bidyanus: Effect of Linolenic and Linoleic Acid on Growth and Survival. Aquaculture, 236, 377-390.

[24]   Rajkumar, M. and Kumaraguru vasagam, K.P. (2006) Suitability of the Copepod, Acartia cluasi as a Live Feed for Seabass Larvae (Lates calcarifer Bloch): Compared to Traditional Live-Food Organisms with Special on the Nutritional Value. Aquaculture, 261, 649-658.

[25]   Yaghoubi, M. (2011) Effect of Enrichment of Artemia Nauplii with HUFA on Growth, Survivaland Resistance to Environmental Stress in Larvae of Angel Fish (Peterophylum scalare). M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 56 p. (In Persian)

[26]   Akbary, P., Hosseini, S.A. and Imanpoor, M.R. (2011) Enrichment of Artemia Nauplii with Essential Fatty Acids and Vitamin C: Effect on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Larvae Performance. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 10, 557-569.

[27]   Van Stappen, G. (1996) Artemia. In: Lavens, P. and Sorgeloos, P., Eds., Manual on the Production and Use of Live Food for Aquaculture, FAO Publication, 101-318.

[28]   Kanazawa, A. (1995) The Effects of Docosahexaenic Acid and Phospholipids on Stress Tolerance of Fish Larvae. In: Larvens, P., Jaspers, E. and Roelants, I., Eds., Larvi Fish and Shellfish, Larviculture Symposium, European Aquaculture Society, Special Publication, No. 24, Ghent, 105 p.

[29]   Furuita, H., Konishi, K. and Takeuchi, T. (1999) Effect of Different Levels of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid in Artemia Nauplii on Growth, Survival and Salinity Tolerance of Larvae of the Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys oliaceus). Aquaculture, 170, 59-69.