AS  Vol.5 No.14 , December 2014
Influence of Vernalization and Photoperiod on the Duration of Stem Elongation and Spikelet Fertility in Wheat
Abstract: A longer stem elongation phase (from the terminal spikelet-TS to the anthesis-ANT phases) increases grain production due to an increase in spikelet fertility. However, the mechanism behind the greater number of fertile flowers that occur when the duration of stem elongation is modified by photoperiod and vernalization is not fully understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of combinations of photoperiod and vernalization on the duration of stem elongation and spikelet fertility in wheat. Thus, a greenhouse experiment was performed by subjecting 13 wheat genotypes to two vernalization regimes (V0—non-vernalized plants and V40—plants with 40 vernalization days) and to two photoperiod regimes (NP—natural and NP + 6—photoperiod extended by six hours), during the stem elongation phase. The natural photoperiod increased the spikelet fertility of eight cultivars without a corresponding increased duration of the TS-ANT phase, suggesting the existence of a direct effect of photoperiod on increased spikelet fertility. Vernalization increased the duration of the TS-ANT phase, without influencing spikelet fertility. There was genetic variability in the responses to photoperiod and vernalization.
Cite this paper: Rodrigues, O. , Teixeira, M. , Costenaro, E. , Vargas, L. and Damo, R. (2014) Influence of Vernalization and Photoperiod on the Duration of Stem Elongation and Spikelet Fertility in Wheat. Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1547-1557. doi: 10.4236/as.2014.514166.

[1]   Slafer, G.A. and Rawson, H.M. (1994) Sensitivity of Wheat Phasic Development to Major Environmental Factors: A Re-Examination of Some Assumptions Made by Physiologist and Modelers. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 21, 393-426.

[2]   Fischer, R.A. (1985) Number of Kernels in Wheat Crops and Influence of Solar Radiation and Temperature. Journal Agricultural Science, 105, 447-461.

[3]   Kirby, E.J.M. (1988) Analysis of Leaf, Stem and Ear Growth in Wheat from Terminal Spikelet Stage to Anthesis. Field Crops Research, 18, 127-140.

[4]   Siddique, K.H.M., Kirby, E.I.M. and Perry, M.W. (1989b) Ear: Stem Ratio in Old and Modern Wheat Varieties; Relationship with Improvement in Number of Grain per Ear and Yield. Field Crops Research, 26, 59-78.

[5]   Savin, R. and Slafer, G.A. (1991) Shading Effect on the Yield of an Argentina Wheat Cultivar. Journal of Agricultural Science, 116, 1-7.

[6]   Slafer, G.A., Satorre, E.H. and Andrade, F.H. (1994) Increases in Grain Yield in Bread Wheat from Breeding and Associated Physiological Changes. In: Slafer, G.A., Ed., Genetic Improvement of Field Crops: Current Status and Development, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1-68.

[7]   Slafer, G.A., Calderini, D.F. and Miralles, D.J. (1996) Yield Components and Compensation in Wheat: Opportunities for Further Increasing Yield Potential. In: Reynolds, M.P., Rajaram, S., Mcnab, A., Eds., Increasing Yields Potential in Wheat: Breaking the Barries, Mexico D.F., 101-133.

[8]   Araus, J.L., Slafer, G.A., Reinolds, M.P. and Royo, C. (2002) Plant Breeding and Drought in C3 Cereal: What Should We Breed for? Annals of Botany, 89, 925-940.

[9]   Halloran, G.M. and Pennel, A.L. (1982) Duration and Rate of Development Phases in Wheat in Two Environments. Annals of Botany (London), 49, 115-121.

[10]   Whitechurch, E.M. and Slafer, G.A. (2001) Responses to Photoperiod before and after Jointing in Wheat Substitution Lines. Euphytica, 118, 47-51.

[11]   Whitechurch, E.M. and Slafer, G.A. (2002) Contrasting Ppd Alleles in Wheat: Effects on Sensitivity to Photoperiod in Different Phases. Field Crops Research, 73, 95-105.

[12]   Kirby, E.J.M., Spink, J.H., Frost, D.L., Sylvester-Bradley, R., Scott, R.K., Foulkes, M.J., Clare, R.W. and Evans, E.J.A. (1999) Study of Wheat Development in the Field: Analysis by Phases. European Journal of Agronomy, 11, 63-82.

[13]   Gonzalez, F.G., Slafer, G.A. and Miralles, D.J. (2003) Grain and Floret Number in Response to Photoperiod during Stem Elongation in Fully and Slightly Vernalized Wheat. Field Crops Research, 81, 17-27.

[14]   Whitechurch, E.M., Slafer, G.A. and Miralles, D.J. (2007) Variability in the Duration of Stem Elongation in Wheat Genotype and Sensitivity to Photoperiod and Vernalization. Journal of Agronomy Crop Science, 193, 131-137.

[15]   Borras-Gelonch, G., Rebetzke, G.J., Richards, R.A. and Romagosa, I. (2012) Genetic Control of Duration of Pre-Anthesis Phases in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Relationships to Leaf Appearance, Tillering, and Dry Matter Accumulation. Journal Experimental Botany, 63, 69-89.

[16]   Sanna, G., Giunta, F., Motzo, R., Mastrangelo, A.M. and De Vita, P. (2014) Genetic Variation for the Duration of Pre-Anthesis Development in Durum Wheat and Its Interaction with Vernalization Treatment and Photoperiod. Journal of Experimental Botany, 65, 3177-3188.

[17]   Slafer, G.A., Abeledo, L.G., Miralles, D.J., Gonzalez, F.G. and Whitechurch, E.M. (2001) Photoperiod Sensitivity during Stem Elongation as an Avenue to Raise Potential Yield in Wheat. Euphytica, 119, 191-197.

[18]   Miralles, J.D., Richards, R.A. and Slafer, G.A. (2000) Duration of the Stem Elongation Period Influences the Number of Fertile Florets in Wheat and Barley. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 27, 931-940.

[19]   Slafer, G.A. and Whitechurch, E.M. (2001) Manipulating Wheat Development to Improve Adaptation. In: Reynolds, M.P., Ortiz-Monasterio, J.I. and Mcnab, A., Eds., Application of Physiology in Wheat Breeding, CIMMYT, Mexico D.F., 160-170.

[20]   Slafer, G.A. (2003) Genetic Basis of Yield as Viewed from a Crop Physiologist’s Perspective. Annals of Applied Biology, 142, 117-128.

[21]   Gonzalez, F.G., Slafer, G.A. and Miralles, D.J. (2005) Photoperiod during Stem Elongation in Wheat: Is Its Impact on Fertile Floret and Grain Number Determination Similar to That of Radiation? Functional Plant Biology, 32, 181-188.

[22]   Gonzalez, F.G., Slafer, G.A. and Miralles, D.J. (2005) Pre-Anthesis Development and Number of Fertile Florets in Wheat as Affected by Photoperiod Sensitivity Genes Ppd-D1 and Ppd-B1. Euphytica, 146, 253-269.

[23]   Fischer, R.A. (2008) The Importance of Grain or Kernel Number in Wheat: A Reply to Sinclair and Jamieson. Field Crop Research, 105, 15-21.

[24]   Gonzalez, F.G., Slafer, G.A. and Miralles, D.J. (2003) Floret Development and Spike Growth as Affected by Photoperiod during Stem Elongation in Wheat. Field Crop Research, 81, 29-38.

[25]   Robertson, M.J., Brocking, I.R. and Ritchie, T.J. (1996) Temperature Response of Vernalization in Wheat: Modeling the Effect on the Final Number of Main Stem Leaves. Annals of Botany, 78, 371-381.

[26]   Rodrigues, O., Lhamby, J.C.B., Didonet, A.D., Marchese, J.A. and Scipioni, C. (1998) Efeito da deficiência hídrica na producao de trigo. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 33, 839-846.

[27]   RCBPTT (2008) Reuniao da Comissao Brasileira de Pesquisa de Trigo e Triticale. In: Informacoes técnicas para a safra 2008: Trigo e triticale, Embrapa Soja, Londrina, 147 p.

[28]   Nerson, H., Sibony, M. and Pinthus, J.M. (1980) A Scale for the Assessment of the Developmental Stage of the Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Spike. Annals of Botany, 45, 203-204.

[29]   Hay, R.K.M. (1986) Sowing Date and the Relationships between Plant and Apex Development in Winter Cereals. Field Crops Research, 14, 321-337.

[30]   Slafer, G.A. and Andrade, F.H. (1993) Physiological Attributes Related to the Generation of Grain Yield in Bread Wheat Cultivars Released at Different Eras. Field Crops Research, 31, 351-367.

[31]   Miralles, D.J., Katz, S.D., Colloca, A. and Slafer, G.A. (1998) Floret Development in Near Isogenic Wheat Lines in Differring in Plant Height. Field Crops Research, 59, 21-30.

[32]   Alberto, C.M., Streck, N.A., Walter, L.C., Rosa, H.T., Brackmann, A., Oliveira, F.B., Zanon, A.J. and Fagundes, L.K. (2009) Resposta à vernalizacao de cultivares brasileiras de trigo. Bragantia, 68, 535-543.

[33]   Gonzalez, F.G., Slafer, G.A. and Miralles, D.J. (2002) Vernalization and Photoperiod Responses in Wheat Pre-Flowering Reproductive Phases. Field Crops Research, 74, 183-195.