AJPS  Vol.5 No.26 , December 2014
Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Diabetic Skin and Protection with Topical Administration of Pinus halepensis Extract
Abstract: Compared to normal, diabetic skin is characterized by great sensitivity. Oxidative stress is directly involved, contributing to accelerated skin aging, xerodermia and poor wound healing. In the last 10 years, cigarette smoke (CS) exposure has been associated with several skin and dermatological conditions and is directly related to the oxidative stress affecting the skin. However, limited data exist concerning the effect of CS on diabetic skin. Some of the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on the skin of hairless diabetic mice were hereby studied and the potential skin protection by topical applications of Pinus halepensis bark extract was investigated. Female hairless SKH-2 diabetic mice were exposed for 8 days to tobacco smoke and topical applications were performed twice daily. Biophysical parameters such as transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin elasticity and erythema were measured. In addition, the oxidative stress was evaluated. The results show that diabetes and CS have a synergistic negative action on skin condition, with the development of xerosis and high ROS levels whilst topical applications of Pinus halepensis bark extract protect efficiently the toxic effect of CS on skin, by decreasing skin dryness, oxidative stress and blood glucose levels.
Cite this paper: Zoumpliou, V. , Stamatiadi, M. , Vassiliadis, C. , Rallis, M. , Papaioannou, G. , Liakos, S. , Angelou, A. , Daskalaki, S. , Kyriazi, M. , Roussis, V. and Vagias, C. (2014) Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Diabetic Skin and Protection with Topical Administration of Pinus halepensis Extract. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 3964-3973. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.526415.

[1]   Cancer Research UK (2014) Healthy Living: Smoking and Cancer.

[2]   Salahundin, S., Prabhakaran, D. and Roy, A. (2012) Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Tobacco-Related CVD. Glob Heart, 7, 113-120.

[3]   Ambrose, J.A. and Barua, R.S. (2004) The Pathophysiology of Cigarette Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease: An Update. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 43, 1731-1737.

[4]   Bernhard, D., Moser, C., Backovic, A. and Wick, G. (2007) Cigarette Smoke—An Aging Accelerator. Experimental Gerontology, 42, 160-165.

[5]   Khanna, A., Guo, M., Mehra, M. and Royal, W. (2013) Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Induced by Cigarette Smoke in Lewis Rat Brains. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 254, 69-75.

[6]   Zavitz, C., Gaschler, G., Robbins, C., Botehlo, F., Cox, G. and Stampfli, M. (2008) Impact of Cigarette Smoke on T and Bcell Responsiveness. Cellular Immunology, 253, 38-44.

[7]   Radin, R., Hatch, E., Rothman, K., Mikkelsen, E., Soresen, H.T., Riis, A. and Wise, L. (2014) Active and Passive Smoking and Fecundability in Danish Pregnancy Planners. Fertility and Sterility, 102, 183-191.

[8]   Taymour, M. (2010) Cigarette Smoking and Male Infertility. Journal of Advanced Research, 1, 179-186.

[9]   Stratton, K., Shetty, P., Wallace, R. and Bondurant, S. (2001) Clearing the Smoke: Assessing the Science Base for Tobacco Harm Reduction. National Academies Press (US), Washington DC, 560-580.

[10]   Sticozzi, C., Belmonte, G., Pecorelli, A., Arezzini, B., Gardi, C., Maioli, E., et al. (2012) Cigarette Smoke Affects Keratinocyte SRB1 Expression and Localization via H2O2 Production and HNE Protein Adducts Formation. PLOS One, 7, e33592.

[11]   Pavlou, P., Rallis, M., Deliconstantinos, G., Papaioannou, G. and Grando, S.A. (2009) In Vivo Data on the Influence of Tobacco Smoke an UV Light on Murine Skin. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 25, 231-239.

[12]   Morita, A. (2007) Tobacco Smoke Causes Premature Skin Aging. Journal of Dermatological Science, 48, 169-175.

[13]   Torres, E.B. and Torres-Pradilla, M. (2012) Cutaneous Manifestations in Children with Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity. Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas, 105, 546-557.

[14]   Ahmed, I. and Goldstein, B. (2006) Diabetes Mellitus. Clinics in Dermatology, 24, 237-246.

[15]   Jones, S. and Hunter, H. (2009) Skin Manifestations of Systemic Disease. Medicine, 37, 277-281.

[16]   Maritim, A.C., Sanders, R.A. and Watkins, J.B. (2003) Diabetes, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants: A Review. Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology, 17, 24-38.

[17]   Pavlovi&cacute, M.D., Milenkovi&cacute, T., Dini&cacute, M., Misovi&cacute, M., Dakovi&cacute, D., Todorovi&cacute, S., et al. (2007) The Prevalence of Cutaneous Manifestations in Young Patients with Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 30, 1964-1967.

[18]   Spravchikov, N., Sizyakov, G., Gartsbein, M., Accili, D., Tennenbaum, T. and Wertheimer, E. (2001) Glucose Effects on Skin Keratinocytes: Implications for Diabetes Skin Complications. Diabetes, 50, 1627-1635.

[19]   Piconi, L., Ouagliaro, L. and Ceriello, A. (2003) Oxidative Stress in Diabetes. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 41, 1144-1149.

[20]   Fuentes, J.L., Vernhe, M., Cuetava, E.B., Sanchez-Lamar, A., Santana, J.L. and Llagostera, M. (2006) Tannins from Barks of Pinus caribaea Protect Escherichia coli Cells against DNA Damage Induced by Y-Rays. Fitoterapia, 77, 116-120.

[21]   Kozan, E., Kupeli, E. and Yesilda, E. (2006) Evaluation of Some Plants Used in Turkish Folk Medicine against Parasitic Infections for Their in Vivo Anthelmintic Activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 108, 211-216.

[22]   Kubeczka, K.H. and Schultze, W. (1987) Biology and Chemistry of Conifer Oils. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 2, 137-148.

[23]   Asensio, D., Owen, S.M., Llusia, J. and Pen&utildeelas, J. (2008) The Distribution of Volatile Isoprenoids in the Soil Horizons around Pinus halepensis Trees. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40, 2937-2947.

[24]   Mirov, N.T. and Iloff Jr., P.M. (1955) Composition of Gum Turpentines of Pines. XXIII. A Report on Three Mediterranean Species: Pinus pinea (Cultivated in California), P. halepensis (from Israel) and P. brutia (from Cyprus). Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 44, 186-189.

[25]   Pasqualini, V., Robles, C., Garzino, S., Greff, S., Bousquet-Melou, A. and Bonin, G. (2003) Phenolic Compounds Content in Pinus halepensis Mill. Needles: A Bioindicator of Air Pollution. Chemosphere, 52, 239-248.

[26]   Delbridge, L., Appleberg, M. and Reeve, T.S. (1983) Factors Associated with Development of Foot Lesions in the Diabetic. Surgery, 93, 78-82.

[27]   Guri, A., Kefalas, P. and Roussis, V. (2006) Antioxidant Potential of Six Pine Species. Phytotherapy Research, 20, 263-266.

[28]   Kim, E., Sohn, S., Lee, M., Jung, J., Kineman, R.D. and Park, S. (2006) Differential Responses of the Growth Hormone Axis in Two Rat Models of Streptozotocin-Induced Insulinopenic Diabetes. Joutrnal of Endocrinology, 188, 263-270.

[29]   Sakai, S., Endo, Y., Ozawa, N., Sugawara, T., Kusaka, A., Sayo, T., et al. (2003) Characteristics of the Epidermis and Stratum Corneum of Hairless Mice with Experimentally Induced Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 120, 79-85.

[30]   Piérard, G.E., Seité, S., Hermanns-Lê, T., Delvenne, P., Scheen, A. and Piérard-Franchimont, C. (2013) The Skin Landscape in Diabetes Mellitus. Focus on Dermocosmetic Management. Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology, 6, 127-135.

[31]   Kyriazi, M., Yova, D., Rallis, M. and Lima, A. (2006) Cancer Chemopreventive Effects of Pinus maritima Bark Extract on Ultraviolet Radiation and Ultraviolet Radiation-7,12, Dimethylbenz(a)antracene Induced Skin Carcinogenesis of Hairless Mice. Cancer Letters, 237, 234-241.

[32]   Jung, H.Y., Shin, J.C., Park, S.M., Kim, N.R., Kwak, W. and Choi, B.H. (2014) Pinus densiflora Extract Protects Human Skin Fibroblasts Against UVB Induced Photoaging by Inhibiting the Expression of MMPs and Increasing Type I Procollagen Expression. Toxicology Reports, 1, 658-666.

[33]   Petri, A., Alexandratou, E., Kyriazi, M., Rallis, M., Roussis, V. and Yova, D. (2012) Combination of Fospeg-IPDT and a Natural Antioxidant Compound Prevents Photosensitivity in a Murine Prostate Cancer Tumour Model. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy, 9, 100-108.