Back
 OJE  Vol.4 No.16 , December 2014
A Multiscale Assessment of the Risks Imposed by Plantation Forestry on Plant Biodiversity in the Hotspot Central Chile
Abstract: We assessed the effects of plantations of exotic trees (Pinus radiata, Eucalyptus globulus, and Populus nigra) on plant biodiversity in the temperate zone of the biodiversity hotspot of Central Chile. This region has suffered from intense deforestation in favor of plantation establishment in the major part of the coastal area since the neoliberal turn in 1973. The approach presented aimed to analyze plant biodiversity on the α-, β- and γ-scale. Furthermore, a plantation evaluation index was applied in order to provide quantitative figures on management practices. Species richness is reduced by 50% below plantations. Diversity and evenness index values are also significantly reduced. Analyses on β-similarity indicate that plantations do not host species absent in adjacent native forests, and no additional habitat heterogeneity is gained. On the γ-scale, plantations lower the number of total species observed; especially of endemic species. The abundance of species considered as invasive is significantly higher and frequently, invasive plants dominate the understory. The evaluation index attests rather poor plantation management in Central Chile since plantations are grown as monocultures, natural elements and native species are lacking at specific sites and plantations are insufficiently connected to native plant formations at the landscape scale. Results give much concern since deforestation processes as observed in our study area is about to begin in Patagonia as well. If management practices from the temperate zone are adopted in Patagonia, a considerable decline in plant biodiversity has to be expected there.
Cite this paper: Braun, A. and Vogt, J. (2014) A Multiscale Assessment of the Risks Imposed by Plantation Forestry on Plant Biodiversity in the Hotspot Central Chile. Open Journal of Ecology, 4, 1025-1044. doi: 10.4236/oje.2014.416085.
References

[1]   Fearnside, P.M. (2005) Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: History, Rates, and Consequences. Conservation Biology, 19, 680-688. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00697.x

[2]   Brook, B.W., Sodhi, N.S. and Ng, P.K.L. (2003) Catastrophic Extinctions Follow Deforestation in Singapore. Nature, 424, 420-426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature01795

[3]   Pandit, M.K., Sodhi, N.S., Koh, L.P., Bhaskar, A. and Brook, B.W. (2007) Unreported yet Massive Deforestation Driving Loss of Endemic Biodiversity in Indian Himalaya. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16, 153-163.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-006-9038-5

[4]   Cowlishaw, G. (1999) Predicting the Pattern of Decline of African Primate Diversity: An Extinction Debt from Historical Deforestation. Conservation Biology, 13, 1183-1193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.98433.x

[5]   Sanchez-Cordero, V., Illoldi-Rangel, P., Linaje, M., Sarkar, S. and Peterson, A.T. (2005) Deforestation and Extant Distributions of Mexican Endemic Mammals. Biological Conservation, 126, 465-473.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.06.022

[6]   Bennett, E.L. (2001) Timber Certification: Where Is the Voice of the Biologist? Conservation Biology, 15, 308-310.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2001.015002308.x

[7]   Putz, F.E., Redford, K.H., Robinson, J.G., Fimbel, R. and Blate, G.M. (2000) Biodiversity Conservation in the Context of Tropical Forest Management. The World Bank, Washington DC.

[8]   Forman, R.T. and Alexander, L.E. (1998) Roads and Their Major Ecological Effects. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 29, 207-231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.29.1.207

[9]   Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B. and Kent, J. (2000) Biodiversity Hotspots for Conservation Priorities. Nature, 403, 853-858. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35002501

[10]   Echeverria, C., Coomes, D., Salas, J., Rey-Benayas, J.M., Lara, A. and Newton, A. (2006) Rapid Deforestation and Forest Fragmentation of Chilean Temperate Forests. Biological Conservation, 130, 481-494.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2006.01.017

[11]   Smith-Ramirez, C. (2004) The Chilean Coastal Range: A Vanishing Center of Biodiversity an Endemism in South American Temperate Rainforests. Biodiversity and Conservation, 13, 373-393.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:BIOC.0000006505.67560.9f

[12]   Braun, A.C., Rojas, C., Echeverria, C., Rottensteiner, F., Bahr, H.P., Niemeyer, J., Aguayo, M., Kosov, S., Hinz, S. and Weidner, U. (2014) Design of a Spectral-Spatial Pattern Recognition Framework for Risk Assessments Using Landsat Data—A Case Study in Chile. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 7, 917-928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTARS.2013.2293421

[13]   Grez, A.A., Bustamante, R.O., Simonetti, J.A. and Fahrig, L. (1998) Landscape Ecology, Deforestation and Forest Fragmentation: The Case of the Ruil Forest in Chile. In: Salinas-Chavez, E. and Middleton, J., Eds., Landscape Ecology as a Tool for Sustainable Development in Latin America, Universitario Santiago de Chile, Santiago de Chile, 32-42

[14]   Bustamante, R.O. and Castor, C. (1998) The Decline of an Endangered Temperate Ecosystem: The Ruil (Nothofagus alessandrii) Forest in Central Chile. Biodiversity and Conservation, 7, 1607-1626.

[15]   Altamirano, A. and Lara, A. (2010) Deforestation in Temperate Ecosystems of Pre-Andean Range of South-Central Chile. Bosque, 31, 53-64.

[16]   Cisternas, M., Martinez, P., Oyarzun, C. and Debels, P. (1999) Characterization of the Replacement Processes of Native Vegetation by Forest Plantations in a Lacustrine Watershed in the Nahuelbuta Mountain Range, VIII Region, Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 72, 661-676.

[17]   Altieri, M.A. and Rojas, A. (1999) Ecological Impacts of Chile’s Neoliberal Policies, with Special Emphasis on Agroecosystems. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 1, 55-72.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010063724280

[18]   Clapp, R.A. (1995) The Unnatural History of the Monterey Pine. The Geographical Review, 85, 1-19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/215551

[19]   Morales, F.R. (1996) La necesidad de avanzarhaciauna Historia Ecologica para Chile. Ambiente y Desarrollo, 12, 61-68.

[20]   Armesto, J.J., Villagran, C. and Donoso, C. (1996) Desde la era glacial a la industrial: La historia del bosque templado chileno. Ambiente y Desarrollo, 12, 19-24.

[21]   Wilson, K., Newton, A., Echeverria, C., Weston, C. and Burgman, M. (2005) A Vulnerability Analysis of the Temperate Forests of South Central Chile. Biological Conservation, 122, 9-21.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2004.06.015

[22]   Guerrero, P.C. and Bustamante, R.O. (2007) Can Native Tree Species Regenerate in Pinus radiata Plantations in Chile? Evidence from Field and Laboratory Experiments. Forest Ecology and Management, 253, 97-102.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.07.006

[23]   Guerrero, P.C. and Bustamante, R.O. (2009) Abiotic Alterations Caused by Forest Fragmentation Affect Tree Regeneration: A Shade and Drought Tolerance Gradient in the Remnants of Coastal Maulino Forest. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 82, 413-424.

[24]   Bustamante, R.O. and Simonetti, J.A. (2005) Is Pinus radiata Invading the Native Vegetation in Central Chile? Demographic Responses in a Fragmented Forest. Biological Invasions, 7, 243-249.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-004-0740-5

[25]   Altamirano, A., Echeverria, C., Lara, A. and Rey-Benayas, J.M. (2007) Effect of Forest Fragmentation on Vegetation Structure of Legrandia concinna (Myrtacea) Threatened Populations in South-Central Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 80, 27-42.

[26]   Langdon, B., Pauchard, A. and Aguayo, M. (2010) Pinus contorta Invasion in the Chilean Patagonia: Local Patterns in a Global Context. Biological Invasions, 12, 3961-3971. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-010-9817-5

[27]   Paritsis, J. and Aizen, M.A. (2008) Effects of Exotic Conifer Plantations on the Biodiversity of Understory Plants, Epigeal Beetles and Birds in Nothofagus dombeyi Forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 1575-1583.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.11.015

[28]   Altamirano, A., Field, R., Cayuela, L., Aplin, P., Lara, A. and Rey-Benayas, J.M. (2010) Woody Species Diversity in Temperate Andean Forests: The Need for New Conservation Strategies. Biological Conservation, 143, 2080-2091.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2010.05.016

[29]   Asmüssen, M.V. and Simonetti, J.A. (2007) Can a Developing Country Like Chile Invest in Biodiversity Conservation? Environmental Conservation, 34, 183-185.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0376892907004183

[30]   Brockerhoff, E.G., Ecroyd, C.E. and Langer, E.R. (2001) Biodiversity in New Zealand Plantation Forests: Policy Trends, Incentives, and the State of Our Knowledge. New Zealand Journal of Forestry, 46, 31-37.

[31]   Murphy, H.T. and Lovett-Doust, J. (2004) Context and Connectivity in Plant Metapopulations and Landscape Mosaics: Does the Matrix Matter? Oikos, 105, 3-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0030-1299.2004.12754.x

[32]   Baum, K.A., Haynes, K.J., Dillemuth, F.P. and Cronin, J.T. (2004) The Matrix Enhances the Effectiveness of Corridors and Stepping Stones. Ecology, 85, 2671-2676. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/04-0500

[33]   Barlow, J., Gardner, T.A., Araujo, I.S., Avila-Pires, T.C., Bonaldo, A.B., Costa, J.E., Esposito, M.C., Ferreira, L.V., Hawes, J., Hernandez, M.I.M., Hoogmoed, M.S., Leite, R.N., Lo-Man-Hung, N.F., Malcom, J.R., Martins, M.B., Mestre, L.A.M., Miranda-Santos, R., Nunes-Gutjahr, A.L., Overal, W.L., Parry, L., Peters, S.L., Ribeiro-Junior, M.A., da Silva, M.N.F., da Silva Motta, C. and Peres, C.A. (2007) Quantifying the Biodiversity Value of Tropical Primary, Secondary, and Plantation Forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 18555-18560.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0703333104

[34]   Hartley, M.J. (2002) Rationale and Methods for Conserving Biodiversity in Plantation Forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 155, 81-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00549-7

[35]   Ferns, P.N., Cowie, R.J. and Weir, A.G. (1992) Managing Conifer Plantations for the Benefit of Granivorous Birds and Mammals. Aspects of Applied Biology, 29, 83-88.

[36]   Allen, R., Platt, K. and Wiser, S. (1995) Biodiversity in New Zealand Plantations. New Zealand Forestry, 39, 26-29.

[37]   Michelsen, A., Lisanework, N., Friis, I. and Holst, N. (1996) Comparisons of Understory Vegetation and Soil Fertility in Plantations and Adjacent Natural Forests in the Ethiopian Highlands. Journal of Applied Ecology, 33, 627-642.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2404991

[38]   Chey, V.K., Holloway, J.D. and Speight, M.R. (1997) Diversity of Moths in Forest Plantations and Natural Forests in Sabah. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 87, 371-385.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000748530003738X

[39]   Estades, C.F. and Temple, S.A. (1999) Deciduous-Forest Bird Communities in a Fragmented Landscape Dominated by Exotic Pine Plantations. Ecological Applications, 9, 573-585.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(1999)009[0573:DFBCIA]2.0.CO;2

[40]   Pauchard, A., Aguayo, M., Pena, E. and Urrutia, R. (2006) Multiple Effects of Urbanization on the Biodiversity of Developing Countries: The Case of a Fast-Growing Metropolitan Area (Concepción, Chile). Biological Conservation, 127, 272-281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.05.015

[41]   Friend, G.R. (1982) Bird Populations in Exotic Pine Plantations and Indigenous Eucalypt Forest in Gippsland, Victoria. Emu, 82, 80-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MU9820080

[42]   Freedman, B., Zelazny, V., Beaudette, D., Fleming, T., Flemming, S., Forbes, G., Gerrow, J.S., Johnson, G. and Woodley, S. (1996) Biodiversity Implications of Changes in the Quantity of Dead Organic Matter in Managed Forests. Environmental Research, 4, 238-265.

[43]   Potton, C. (1994) A Public Perception of Plantation Forestry. New Zealand Forestry, 39, 2-3.

[44]   Perley, C. (1994) Biodiversity, Sustainability and a Land Ethic. New Zealand Forestry, 39, 2-3.

[45]   Fomegas, D.Y., Bayos, N.W. and Atayoc, J.P. (2004) Phytodiversity under Pine, (Pinus insularis) Forest Community in Tadian, Mountain Province. Proceedings: Regional Sectoral/Commodity Review, ATI-CAR, La Trinidad, 15-17 June 2004, 17-26.

[46]   Vergara, P.M. and Simonetti, J.A. (2004) Avian Responses to Fragmentation of the Maulino Forest in Central Chile. Oryx, 38, 383-388. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0030605304000742

[47]   Estades, C.F. (1994) Impacto de la sustitucion del bosque native por plantaciones de Pinus radiata sobre una comunidad de aves en la Octava Region de Chile. Boletin Chileno de la Ornitologia, 1, 8-14.

[48]   Saavedra, B. and Simonetti, J.A. (2005) Small Mammals in Remnants of Maulino Forest and Adjacent Monterrey Pine plantations, Historia, biodiversidad y ecologia de los bosques de la cordillera de la Costa. Editorial Universitaria, Santiago de Chile.

[49]   Barbosa, O. and Marquet, P.A. (2002) Effects of Forest Fragmentation on the Beetle Assemblage at the Relict Forest of Fray Jorge, Chile. Oecologia, 132, 296-306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-002-0951-3

[50]   Pena-Cortes, F., Rebolledo, G., Hermosilla, K., Hauenstein, E., Bertran, C., Schlatter, R. and Tapia, J. (2006) Dinámica del paisaje para el período 1980-2004 en la cuencacostera del Lago Budi, Chile. Consideraciones para la conservación de sushumedales. Ecología Austral, 16, 183-196.

[51]   Pawson, S.M., Brockerhoff, E.G., Watt, M.S. and Didham, R.K. (2006) Maximizing Biodiversity in Plantation Forests: Insights from Long-Term Changes in Clearfell-Sensitive Beetles in a Pinus radiata Plantation. Biological Conservation, 144, 2842-2850.

[52]   Toro, J. and Gessel, S.P. (1999) Radiata Pine Plantations in Chile. New Forests, 18, 33-44.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006597823190

[53]   Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas (2002) Censo 2002: Sintesis de Resultados. Instituto Nacional de Estatisticas, Santiago de Chile.

[54]   Peel, M.C., Finlayson, B.L. and McMahon, T.A. (2007) Updated World Map of the Koppen-Geiger Climate Classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 11, 1633-1644. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007

[55]   Veit, H. and Garleff, K. (1995) Evolucion del paisaje Cuaternario y los suelos en Chile centro-sur. In: Armesto, J.J., Villagran, C. and Arroyo, M.K., Eds., Ecologia de los bosquesnativos de Chile, Editorial Universitaria, Santiago, 363-387.

[56]   Donoso, C. and Lara, A. (1995) Utilizacion de los bosquesnativos en Chile, pasado, presente y future. In: Armesto, J.J., Villagran, C. and Arroyo, M.K., Eds., Ecologia de los bosquesnativos de Chile, Editorial Universitaria, Santiago, 363-387.

[57]   Ovalle, C., Avedano, J., Aronson, J. and Del Pozo, A. (1996) Land Occupation Patterns and Vegetation Structure in the Anthropogenic Savannas (Espinales) of Central Chile. Forest Ecology and Management, 86, 129-139.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(96)03786-3

[58]   Luebert, F. and Pliscoff, P. (2005) Sinopsis bioclimatica y vegetacional de Chile. Editorial Universitaria, Santiago de Chile.

[59]   Amigo, J., San Martin, J. and Garcia Quintanilla, L. (2000) Estudio fitosociologico de los bosques de Nothofagus glauca (Phil.) Krasser del Centro-Sur de Chile. Phytocoenologia, 30, 193-221.

[60]   Hildebrand-Vogel, R. (2002) Structure and Dynamics of Southern Chilean Natural Forests with Special Reference to Their Relation of Evergreen versus Deciduous Elements. Folia Geobotanica, 37, 107-128.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02803194

[61]   Armesto, J.J. and Pickett, S. (1985) A Mechanistic Approach to the Study of Succession in the Chilean Matorral. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 58, 9-17.

[62]   Armesto, J.J., Gutierrez, J. and Martinez, J. (1979) Las comunidades vegetales de la region mediterranea de Chile: Distribucion de especies y formas de vida en ungradiente de aridez. Medio Ambiente, 4, 62-70.

[63]   Echeverria, C. and Lara, A. (2004) Growth Patterns of Secondary Nothofagus obliqua—N. alpina Forests in Southern Chile. Forest Ecology and Management, 195, 29-43.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2004.02.034

[64]   Camus, P. (2003) Federico Albert: Artifice de la Gestion de los Bosques de Chile. Revista de Geografía Norte Grande, 30, 55-63.

[65]   Sheppard, H.E. (1999) Certificacion forestal (II). Una opcion medioambiental de vanguardia para Chile. Ambiente y Desarrollo, 15, 54-57.

[66]   CONAF (2011) Catastro de los Recursos Vegetacionales Nativos de Chile: Monitoreo de Cambios y Actualizaciones. Chilean Forest Service CONAF, Santiago de Chile.

[67]   Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas (2002) Censo 2002—Sintesis de Resultados. Comision Nacinoal del XVII Censo de Poblacion y VI de Vivienda, Santiago de Chile, Chile. http://www.ine.cl/cd2002/sintesiscensal.pdf

[68]   Salt, D., Lindenmayer, D. and Hobbs, R. (2004) Trees and Biodiversity: A Guide for Australian Farm Forestry. Joint Venture Agroforestry Program 2004, Australian National University, Canberra.

[69]   Sasaki, N. and Putz, F.E. (2009) Critical Need for New Definitions of “Forest” and “Forest Degradation” in Global Climate Change Agreements. Conservation Letters, 2, 226-232.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2009.00067.x

[70]   Deil, U., Alvarez, M. and Paulini, I. (2007) Native and Non-Native Species in Annual Grassland Vegetation in Mediterranean Chile. Phytocoenologia, 37, 769-784. http://dx.doi.org/10.1127/0340-269X/2007/0037-0769

[71]   Van de Vouw, W., Echeverria, C., Rey-Benayas, J.M. and Holmgren, M. (2011) Persistent Acacia Savannas Replace Mediterranean Sclerophyllous Forests in South America. Forest Ecology and Management, 262, 1100-1108.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.06.009

[72]   Aronson, J., Del Pozo, A., Ovalle, C., Aveda?o, J., Lavin, A. and Etienne, M. (1998) Land Use Changes and Conflicts in Central Chile. In: Rundel, P.W., Rizzardini, G.M. and Jaksic, F.M., Eds., Landscape Disturbance and Biodiversity in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems, Springer, Heidelberg, 155-168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-03543-6_9

[73]   Braun-Blanquet, J. (1964) Pflanzensoziologie: Grundzüge der Vegetationskunde. 3rd Edition, Springer, Berlin.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-8110-2

[74]   Chytry, M., Schaminée, J.H.J. and Schwabe, A. (2011) Vegetation Survey: A New Focus for Applied Vegetation Science. Applied Vegetation Science, 14, 435-439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-109X.2011.01154.x

[75]   Podani, J. (2006) Braun-Blanquet’s Legacy and Data Analysis in Vegetation Science. Journal of Vegetation Science, 17, 113-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2006.tb02429.x

[76]   Walker, D.A., Kuss, P., Epstein, H.E., Kade, A.N., Vonlanthen, C.M., Raynolds, M.K. and Danie F.J.A. (2011) Vegetation of Zonal Patterned-Ground Ecosystems along the North America Arctic Bioclimate Gradient. Applied Vegetation Science, 14, 440-463. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-109X.2011.01149.x

[77]   Pellisier, V., Gallet, S. and Roze, F. (2004) Comparison of the Vegetation of Seed Bank on Hedge Banks of Different Ages in Brittany, France. Environmental Management, 34, 52-61.

[78]   Spellerberg, I.F. and Sawyer, J.W.D. (1996) Standards for Biodiversity: A Proposal Based on Biodiversity Standards for Forest Plantations. Biodiversity and Conservation, 5, 447-459.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00056390

[79]   Duelli, P. and Obrist, M.K. (2003) Biodiversity Indicators: The Choice of Values and Measures. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 98, 87-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(03)00072-0

[80]   Cawsey, E.M. and Freudenberger, D. (2008) Assessing the Biodiversity Benefits of Plantations: The Plantation Biodiversity Benefits Score. Ecological Management and Restoration, 9, 42-52.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-8903.2008.00386.x

[81]   Tuomisto, H. (2010) A Consistent Terminology for Quantifying Species Diversity? Yes, It Does Exist. Oecologia, 164, 853-860. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-010-1812-0

[82]   Tuomisto, H. (2012) An Updated Consumer’s Guide to Evenness and Related Indices. Oikos, 121, 1203-1218.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.19897.x

[83]   Verdeguer, M., Garcia-Rellan, D., Boira, H., Perez, E., Gandolfo, S. and Blazquez, M.A. (2011) Herbicidal Activity of Peumus boldus and Drimys winterii Essential Oils from Chile. Molecules, 16, 403-411.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules16010403

[84]   Magurran, A.E. (2004) Measuring Biological Diversity. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

[85]   Hurlbert, S.H. (1971) The Nonconcept of Species Diversity: A Critique and Alternative Parameters. Ecology, 52, 577-586. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1934145

[86]   Gotelli, N.J. and Colwell, R.K. (2001) Quantifying Biodiversity: Procedures and Pitfalls in the Measurement and Comparison of Species Richness. Ecology Letters, 4, 379-391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1461-0248.2001.00230.x

[87]   Lugo, A.E. (1992) Comparison of Tropical Tree Plantations with Secondary Forests of Similar Age. Ecological Monographs, 62, 1-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2937169

[88]   Rojas, C., Vivanco, M., Opazo, S., Peters, S. and Constanza, V. (2011) Pre and Post Earthquake Land Use and Land Cover Identification in Concepción. In: Krisp, J.M., Meng, L., Pail, R. and Stilla, U., Eds., Earth Observation of Global Changes, Springer, Heidelberg, 223-231.

[89]   Holmgren, M., Aviles, R., Sierralta, L., Segura, A.M. and Fuentes, E.R. (2010) Why Have European Herbs so Successfully Invaded the Chilean Matorral? Effects of Herbivory, Soil Nutrients and Fire. Journal of Arid Environments, 44, 197-211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jare.1999.0589

[90]   Figueroa, J.A., Castro, S.A., Marquet, P.A. and Jaksic, F.M. (2004) Exotic Plant Invasions to the Mediterranean Region of Chile: Causes, History and Impacts. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 77, 465-483.

[91]   Quiroz, C.L., Pauchard, A., Marticorena, A. and Cavieres, L.A. (2009) Manual de Plantas Invasoras del Centro-Sur de Chile. Laboratorio de Invasiones Biologicas, Concepción.

[92]   Munoz-Moreira, A. (2011) Plant Geography of Chile. Springer, Heidelberg.

[93]   Omarzabal, C.S. (1993) The Conservation of Biodiversity in Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 66, 383-402.

[94]   Levine, J.M., Vila, M., Antonio, C., Dukes, J.S., Grigulis, K. and Lavorel, S. (2003) Mechanisms Underlying the Impacts of Exotic Plant Invasions. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 270, 775-781.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2003.2327

[95]   Hierro, J.L., Maron, J.L. and Callaway, R.M. (2005) A Biogeographical Approach to Plant Invasions: The Importance of Studying Exotics in Their Introduced and Native Range. Journal of Ecology, 93, 5-15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-0477.2004.00953.x

[96]   Donald, P.F., Haycock, D., Fuller, R.J., Evans, A.D. and Gough, S.J. (1998) Effects of Forest Management and Grazing on Breeding Bird Communities in Plantations with Broad-Leaved and Coniferous Trees in Western England. Biological Conservation, 85, 183-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(97)00114-6

[97]   Keenan, R., Lamb, D., Woldring, O., Irvine, T. and Jensen, R. (1997) Restoration of Plant Biodiversity beneath Tropical Tree Plantations in Northern Australia. Forest Ecology and Management, 99, 117-131.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(97)00198-9

[98]   Lara, A. (2004) Conservacion de los ecosistemas boscosos: Algunas lecciones de los ultimos 20 anos. Ambiente y Desarrollo, 20, 111-115.

[99]   Bennett, E.L. (2001) The Joint Effort of Timber Certification. Conservation Biology, 15, 318-319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2001.015002318.x

[100]   Cauley, H.A., Peters, C.M., Donovan, R.Z. and O’Connor, J.M. (2001) Forest Stewardship Council Forest Certification. Conservation Biology, 15, 311-312.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2001.015002311.x

[101]   Neyland, M.G., Wilkinson, G.R. and Edwards, L.G. (1999) The Forestier Silvicultural Systems Trial: Alternatives to Clearfelling. Tasforests, 11, 35-48.

[102]   Siira-Pietikainen, A., Haimi, J. and Siitonen, J. (2003) Short Term Responses of Soil Macroarthropod Community to Clear Felling and Alternative Forest Regeneration Methods. Forest Ecology and Management, 172, 339-353.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00811-8

[103]   Baker, S.C., Grove, S.J., Forster, L., Bonham, K.J. and Bashford, D. (2009) Short-Term Responses of Ground-Active Beetles to Alternative Silvicultural Systems in the Warra Silvicultural Systems Trial, Tasmania, Australia. Forest Ecology and Management, 258, 444-459.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.03.044

[104]   Taylor, R.J. and Haseler, M.E. (1995) Effects of Partial Logging Systems on Bird Assemblages in Tasmania. Forest Ecology and Management, 72, 131-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-1127(94)03470-H

[105]   Lefort, P. and Grove, S. (2009) Early Responses of Birds to Clearfelling and Its Alternatives in Lowland Wet Eucalyptus Forest in Tasmania, Australia. Forest Ecology and Management, 258, 460-471.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.04.022

[106]   Radford, J.Q., Bennett, A.F. and Cheers, G.J. (2005) Landscape-Level Thresholds of Habitat Cover for Woodland-Dependent Birds. Biological Conservation, 124, 317-337.

[107]   Watson, J., Freudenberger, D. and Paull, D. (2001) An Assessment of the Focal Species Approach for Conserving Birds in Variegated Landscapes in Southeastern Australia. Conservation Biology, 15, 1364-1373.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2001.00166.x

[108]   MacIntyre, S., McIvor, J.G. and MacLeod, N.D. (2000) Principles for Sustainable Grazing in Eucalypt Woodlands: Landscape-Scale Indicators and the Search for Thresholds. In: Hale, P., Petrie, A., Maloney, D. and Sattler, P., Eds., Management for Sustainable Ecosystems, Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, 92-100.

 
 
Top