Health  Vol.6 No.21 , December 2014
Effects of Nickel Chloride on Histopathological Lesions and Oxidative Damage in the Thymus
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to observe the histopathological lesions and oxidative damage induced by dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) in the thymus. A total of 280 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as the control diet or the same basal diet supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. In the NiCl2-treated groups, the broiler weight and thymic relative weight were significantly (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) decreased. Histopathologically, thymic corpuscles were increased and enlarged; the reticular cells were degenerate and necrotic, and lymphocytes were slightly decreased and loosely arranged in the medulla of thymus in the 600 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg groups. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the ability to inhibit hydroxy radical and glutathione (GSH) content were significantly (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) lower in the NiCl2-treated groups than those in the control group, while MDA content was higher. The above-mentioned results demonstrated that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg could reduce the broiler weight and thymic relative weight, and cause histopathological lesions and oxidative damage in the thymus, which finally impaired the thymic function.
Cite this paper: Tang, K. , Li, J. , Yin, S. , Guo, H. , Deng, J. and Cui, H. (2014) Effects of Nickel Chloride on Histopathological Lesions and Oxidative Damage in the Thymus. Health, 6, 2875-2882. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.621326.

[1]   Cempel, M. and Nikel, G. (2006) Nickel: A Review of Its Sources and Environmental Toxicology. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 15, 375-382.

[2]   Grandjean, P. (1983) Human Exposure to Nickel. IARC Scientific Publications, 5, 469-485.

[3]   Marzec, Z. (2004) Alimentary Chromium, Nickel, and Selenium Intake of Adults in Poland Estimated by Analysis and Calculations Using the Duplicate Portion Technique. Die Nahrung, 48, 47-52.

[4]   Spears, J. (1984) Nickel as a “Newer Trace Element” in the Nutrition of Domestic Animals. Journal of Animal Science, 59, 823-835.

[5]   Anke, M., Partschefeld, M., Grün, M. and Groppel, B. (1978) Nickel—Ein essentielles Spurenelement. Archives of Animal Nutrition, 28, 83-90.

[6]   Samal, L. and Mishra, C. (2011) Significance of Nickel in Livestock Health and Production. International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences, 5, 349-361.

[7]   Haber, L., Erdreicht, L., Diamond, G., Maier, A., Ratney, R., Zhao, Q. and Dourson, M. (2000) Hazard Identification and Dose Response of Inhaled Nickel-Soluble Salts. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 31, 210-230.

[8]   Kasprzak, K.S., Sunderman Jr, F.W. and Salnikow, K. (2003) Nickel Carcinogenesis. Mutation Research: Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms, 533, 67-97.

[9]   Haley, P.J., Bice, D.E., Muggenburg, B.A., Hann, F.F. and Benjamin, S.A. (1987) Immunopathologic Effects of Nickel Subsulfide on the Primate Pulmonary Immune System. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 88, 1-12.

[10]   Donskoy, E., Donskoy, M., Forouhar, F., Gillies, C., Marzouk, A., Reid, M., Zaharia, O. and Sunderman, F. (1986) Hepatic Toxicity of Nickel Chloride in Rats. Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science, 16, 108-117.

[11]   Doreswamy, K., Shrilatha, B. and Rajeshkumar, T. (2004) Nickel-Induced Oxidative Stress in Testis of Mice: Evidence of DNA Damage and Genotoxic Effects. Journal of Andrology, 25, 996-1003.

[12]   Wu, B., Cui, H., Peng, X., Fang, J., Zuo, Z., Deng, J. and Huang, J. (2013) Dietary Nickel Chloride Induces Oxidative Intestinal Damage in Broilers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10, 2109-2119.

[13]   Chakrabarti, S.K. and Bai, C. (1999) Role of Oxidative Stress in Nickel Chloride-Induced Cell Injury in Rat Renal Cortical Slices. Biochemical Pharmacology, 58, 1501-1510.

[14]   Misra, M., Rodriguez, R.E. and Kasprzak, K.S. (1990) Nickel Induced Lipid Peroxidation in the Rat: Correlation with Nickel Effect on Antioxidant Defense Systems. Toxicology, 64, 1-17.

[15]   Chen, C.-Y., Wang, Y.-F., Lin, Y.-H. and Yen, S.-F. (2003) Nickel-Induced Oxidative Stress and Effect of Antioxidants in Human Lymphocytes. Archives of Toxicology, 77, 123-130.

[16]   Huang, J., Cui, H., Peng, X., Fang, J., Zuo, Z., Deng, J. and Wu, B. (2013) The Association between Splenocyte Apoptosis and Alterations of Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 mRNA Expression, and Oxidative Stress Induced by Dietary Nickel Chloride in Broilers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10, 7310-7326.

[17]   National Research Council (1994) Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. National Academy Press, Washington DC.

[18]   Bradford, M.M. (1976) A Rapid and Sensitive Method for the Quantitation of Microgram Quantities of Protein Utilizing the Principle of Protein-Dye Binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72, 248-254.

[19]   Ling, J. and Leach, R. (1979) Studies on Nickel Metabolism: Interaction with Other Mineral Elements. Poultry Science, 58, 591-596.

[20]   Chen, K., Shu, G., Peng, X., Fang, J., Cui, H., Chen, J., Wang, F., Chen, Z., Zuo, Z. and Deng, J. (2013) Protective Role of Sodium Selenite on Histopathological Lesions, Decreased T-Cell Subsets and Increased Apoptosis of Thymus in Broilers Intoxicated with Aflatoxin B1. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 59, 446-454.

[21]   Chlubeka, D. (2003) Fluoride and Oxidative Stress. Fluoride, 36, 217-228.

[22]   Maiti, R. and Ghosh, D. (2006) Management of Fluoride Induced Testicular Disorders by Calcium and Vitamin-E Co-Administration in the Albino Rat. Reproductive Toxicology, 22, 606-612.

[23]   Paller, M.S., Hoidal, J. and Ferris, T.F. (1984) Oxygen Free Radicals in Ischemic Acute Renal Failure in the Rat. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 74, 1156-1164.

[24]   Stohs, S. and Bagchi, D. (1995) Oxidative Mechanisms in the Toxicity of Metal Ions. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 18, 321-336.

[25]   Chen, C.-Y., Sheu, J.-Y. and Lin, T.-H. (1999) Oxidative Effects of Nickel on Bone Marrow and Blood of Rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A, 58, 475-483.

[26]   Ferreccio, C., Psych, C.G., Stat, V.M., Gredis, G.M. and Sancha, A.M. (1998) Lung Cancer and Arsenic Exposure in Drinking Water: A Case-Control Study in Northern Chile. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 14, S193-S198.

[27]   Altintas, L., Essiz, D., Eraslan, G., Ince, S. and Arslanbas, E. (2010) Prophylactic Effect of N-Acetylcysteine against Sodium Fluoride-Induced Blood Oxidative Stress in Mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48, 2838-2841.

[28]   Kubrak, O.I., Husak, V.V., Rovenko, B.M., Poigner, H., Mazepa, M.A., Kriews, M., Abele, D. and Lushchak, V.I. (2012) Tissue Specificity in Nickel Uptake and Induction of Oxidative Stress in Kidney and Spleen of Goldfish Carassius auratus, Exposed to Waterborne Nickel. Aquatic Toxicology, 118, 88-96.

[29]   Streit, W.J. and Kincaid-Colton, C.A. (1995) The Brain’s Immune System. Scientific American, 273, 54-61.

[30]   Salnikow, K., Gao, M., Voitkun, V., Huang, X. and Costa, M. (1994) Altered Oxidative Stress Responses in Nickel-Resistant Mammalian Cells. Cancer Research, 54, 6407-6412.

[31]   Boadi, W.Y., Harris, S., Anderson, J.B. and Adunyah, S.E. (2013) Lipid Peroxides and Glutathione Status in Human Progenitor Mononuclear (U937) Cells Following Exposure to Low Doses of Nickel and Copper. Drug and Chemical Toxicology, 36, 155-162.

[32]   Luczaj, W. and Skrzydlewska, E. (2004) Antioxidant Properties of Black Tea in Alcohol Intoxication. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 42, 2045-2051.

[33]   Chen, L., Xi, S. and Cohen, D. (1995) Liver Antioxidant Defenses in Mice Fed Ethanol and the AIN-76A Diet. Alcohol, 12, 453-457.

[34]   Reiter, R.J., Melchiorri, D., Sewerynek, E., Poeggeler, B., Barlow-Walden, L., Chuang, J., Ortiz, G.G. and Acuna-Castroviejo, D. (1995) A Review of the Evidence Supporting Melatonin’s Role as an Antioxidant. Journal of Pineal Research, 18, 1-11.

[35]   Gawel, S., Wardas, M., Niedworok, E. and Wardas, P. (2003) Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a Lipid Peroxidation Marker. Wiadomosci Lekarskie, 57, 453-455.

[36]   Marnett, L.J. (1999) Lipid Peroxidation—DNA Damage by Malondialdehyde. Mutation Research-Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms, 424, 83-95.

[37]   Rao, M.V., Chawla, S.L. and Sharma, S.R. (2009) Protective Role of Vitamin E on Nickel and/or Chromium Induced Oxidative Stress in the Mouse Ovary. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47, 1368-1371.

[38]   Lou, J., Jin, L., Wu, N., Tan, Y., Song, Y., Gao, M., Liu, K., Zhang, X. and He, J. (2013) DNA Damage and Oxidative Stress in Human B Lymphoblastoid Cells after Combined Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium and Nickel Compounds. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 55, 533-540.