Agrawal, A. (1995) Dismantling the Divide between Indigenous and Scientific Knowledge. Development and Change, 26, 413-439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7660.1995.tb00560.x
 Briggs, J. and Sharp, J. (2004) Indigenous Knowledge and Development: A Postcolonial Caution. Third World Quarterly, 25, 661-676. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01436590410001678915
 Fabricius, C., Folke, C., Cundill, G. and Schultz, L. (2007) Powerless Spectators, Coping Actors and Adaptive CoManagers: A Synthesis of the Role of Communities in Ecosystem Management. Ecology and Society, 12, 29.
 Yamia, M., Vogl, C. and Hausera, M. (2009) Comparing the Effectiveness of Informal and Formal Institutions in Sustainable Common Pool Resources Management in Sub-Saharan Africa. Conservation and Society, 7, 153-164.
 Van Vlaenderen, H. (2000) Local Knowledge: What Is It and Why and How Do We Capture It? National Workshop on Gender, Biodiversity and Local Knowledge Systems Links to Strengthen Agricultural and Rural Development, Morogoro, FAO.
 Luoga, E.J. (1994) Indigenous Knowledge and Sustainable Management of Forest Resources in Tanzania. Proceedings of the Workshop on Information for Sustainable Natural Resources of Eastern, Central and Southern Africa, Arusha, 4-9 November 1994, 139-148.
 Luoga, E.J., Witkowski, E.T.F. and Balkwill, K. (2000) Differential Utilization and Ethnobotany of Trees in Kitulangalo Forest Reserve and Surrounding Communal Lands of Eastern Tanzania. Economic Botany, 54, 328-343.
 Mowo, J., Adimassu, Z., Masuki, K., Lyamchai, C., Tanui, J. and Catacutan, D. (2011) The Importance of Local Traditional Institutions in the Management of Natural Resources in the Highlands of Eastern Africa. Working Paper No. 134, World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi. http://www.dx.doi.org/10.5716/WP11085.PDF
 Ashenafi, Z. and Leader-Williams, N. (2005) Indigenous Common Property Resource Management in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. Human Ecology, 33, 539-563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10745-005-5159-9
 Global Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020. http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/default
 Kiwanuka, S. (1970) Colonial Policies and Administration in Africa: The Myths of the Contract. African Historical Studies, 3, 295-315. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/216218
 Schneider, L. (2004) Freedom and Unfreedom in Rural Development: Julius Nyerere, UjamaaVijijini and Villagization. Canadian Journal of African Studies, 38, 344-392. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4107304
 Shivji, I. (2012) Nationalism and Pan-Africanism: Decisive Moments in Nyerere’s Intellectual and Political Thought. Review of African Political Economy, 39, 103-116.
 Liviga, A. (1992) Local Government in Tanzania: Partner in Development or Administrative Agent of the Central Government? Local Government Studies, 18, 208-225.
 Kajembe, G.C., Monela, G.C. and Mvena, Z.S.K. (2003) Making Community-Based Forest Management Work: A Case Study from Duru-Haitemba Village Forest Reserve, Babati, Tanzania. In: Kowero, G., Campbell, B.M. and Sumaila, U.R., Eds., Policies and Governance Structures in Woodlands of Southern Africa, Center for International Forestry Research, Jakarta, 16-27.
 Maro, P. (1988) Agricultural Land Management under Population Pressure: The Kilimanjaro Experience, Tanzania. Mountain Research and Development, 8, 273-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3673548
 Ikegami, K. (1994) The Traditional Agrosilvipastoral Complex System in the Kilimanjaro Region, and Its Implications for the Japanese-Assisted Lower Moshi Irrigation Project. African Study Monographs, 15, 189-209.
 Ylh?isi, J. (2006) Traditionally Protected Forests and Sacred Forests of Zigua and Gweno Ethnic Groups in Tanzania. Doctoral Dissertation, Helsingin Yliopiston Maantieteen Laitoksen Julkaisuja, Helsingin.
 Mgumia, H. and Oba, G. (2003) Potential Role of Sacred Groves in Biodiversity Conservation in Tanzania. Environmental Conservation, 30, 259-265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0376892903000250
 Msuya, S. and Kideghesho, J. (2009) The Role of Traditional Management Practices in Enhancing Sustainable Use and Conservation of Medicinal Plants in West Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Tropical Conservation Science, 2, 88-105.
 Munger, S. (1952) African Coffee on Kilimanjaro: A Chagga Kihamba. Economic Geography, 28, 181-185.
 Tagseth, M. (2006) The “Mfongo” Irrigation Systems on the Slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. In: Tvedt, T. and Jakonsson, E., Eds., A History of Water Volume I: Water Control and River Biographies, I.B. Tauris, London, 488-506.
 Sheridan, M. (2002) An Irrigation Intake Is Like a Uterus: Culture and Agriculture in Pre-Colonial North Pare, Tanzania. American Anthropologist, 104, 79-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.2002.104.1.79
 United Republic of Tanzania, URT (2013) Population and Housing Census: Population Distribution by Administrative Areas. National Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Finance, Dar es Salaam and Office of Chief Government Statistician, President’s Office, Finance, Economy and Development Planning, Zanzibar.
 Magigi, W. and Sathiel, A. (2014) Gender Consideration in Sustainable Land Management Project Activities on the Highlands of Kilimanjaro Region: Lessons and Future Outlook. Open Journal of Soil Science, 4, 185-205.
 O’kting’ati, A., Maghembe, J.A., Fernandes, E.C.M. and Weaver, G.H. (1985) Plant Species in the Kilimanjaro Agroforestry System. Agroforestry Systems, 2, 177-186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00147032
 Kangalawe, R.Y.M. (2001) Changing Land-Use Patterns in the Irangi Hills, Central Tanzania: A Study of Soil Degradation and Adaptive Farming Strategies. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
 Kangalawe, R.Y.M. (2014) Nutrient Budget Analysis under Smallholder Farming Systems and Implications on Agricultural Sustainability in Degraded Environments of Semiarid Central Tanzania. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management, 6, 44-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JSSEM13.0390
 Kajembe, C., Mwaipopo, S., Mvena, K. and Monela, G. (2002) The Role of Traditional Leadership, Institutions and Ecological Knowledge in Sustainable Management of Miombo Woodlands in Handeni District, Tanzania. Policies, Governance and Harvesting Miombo Woodlands, Harare.
 Kajembe, G.C., Mwaipopo, S. and Kijazi, M. (2003) The Role of Traditional Institutions in the Conservation of Forest Resources in East Usambara, Tanzania. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 10, 101-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13504500309469789
 Kabudi, P.J. (2003) Benefits and Risks of Sharing Local and Indigenous Knowledge in Tanzania: The Legal Aspects and Challenges. Report No. 5, Links Project: Gender, Biodiversity and Local Knowledge Systems for Food Security, FAO, Rome.