An assessment of
staffing and training needs for effective delivery of extension services in mainstreaming
sustainable land management (SLM) practices in Kilimanjaro Region was conducted
in June/July 2013. Data collection methods included discussions with key
informants at the regional and district levels, consultations with village
level stakeholders and potential collaborators, review of human resources data
both at regional, district and ward levels and collection of individual staff
bio-data including capacity deficiencies. The staffing situation at the
regional and district levels was considered to be adequate for effective
mainstreaming of SLM interventions in the region. Staffing at ward and village
levels was very poor and largely inadequate for sustainable execution of
extension services. It is optimistically estimated that on average the staffing
at ward level needs to be increased by at least 50%. In some districts the
deficiency of extension staff at ward level was as high as 80%. Training needs
exist at all levels from the region down to community level. At the regional
and district levels both long and short term training programs were required.
At the community level required training is more practical and purely focused
in mainstreaming SLM interventions at individual households and community
lands. Potential collaborators with local government were identified in four
main categories namely, NGOs/CBOs, private sector, government departments and
faith-based organizations. The study recommends a capacity building program on
specific knowledge gaps identified at regional, district, ward and village levels.
The study further recommends that immediate measures need to be taken by the
district authorities to address the staffing problem at ward level including
recruitment of volunteers and developing collaboration framework with
identified potential partners.
Cite this paper
Kessy, J. (2014) Analysis of Staffing and Training Needs for Effective Delivery of Extension Service in Sustainable Land Management in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. Open Journal of Soil Science
, 459-468. doi: 10.4236/ojss.2014.413045
 Kessy, J.F., Oktingati, A. and Solberg, B. (1993) The Economics of Rehabilitating Denuded Areas in Tanzania: The Case of Legho Mulo Moshi. Faculty of Forestry Record No. 60, Sokoine University of Agriculture.
 Kessy, J.F. and Oktingati, A. (1994) An Analysis of Some Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Farmer’s Involvement in Agroforestry Extension Projects in Tanzania. Annals of Forestry, 2, 26-32.
 Oktingàti, A. and Kessy, J.F. (1991) The Farming Systems on Mount Kilimanjaro. In: Newmark, W.D., Ed., Conservation of Mount Kilimanjaro, Chapter 8, IUCN, Gland.
 Flora, K., Mashindano, O., Rweyemam, D. and Charles, P. (2011) Poverty Escape Routes in Central Tanzania: Copping Strategies in Singida and Dodoma Regions. Volume III, The Economic and Social Research Foundation (ESRF), Dar es Salaam.
 Kessy, J.F. (1998) Conservation and Utilization of Natural Resources in the East Usambara Forest Reserves: Conventional Views and Local Perspectives. Tropical Forest Management Papers No. 18, Wageningen.
 UNDP (2007) Capacity Assessment Methodology. Users Guide, Capacity Development Group, Bureau for Development Policy, UNDP.
 Wignaraja, K. (2009) Capacity Development: A UNDP Primer. UNDP, USA.
 Miller, J.A. and Osinski, D.M. (2002) Training Needs Assessment. http://www.ispi.org/pdf/suggestedReading/Miller_Osinski.pdf
 Chris, B., Sparrow, P., Vernon, G. and Houldsworth, E. (2011) International Human Resources Management. 3rd Edition, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, London.
 Itika, J. (2011) Fundamentals of Human Resources Management: Emerging Experiences from Africa. African Public Administration and Management Series, Vol. 2, African Studies Centre, Leiden.
 Robert, L. and Hendon, J. (2012) Human Resources Management: Functions, Applications, Skill Development. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.