Health  Vol.6 No.20 , December 2014
Do Pregnant Teens Have Higher Risk of Intimate Partner Violence than Pregnant Adult Women in Mexico?
ABSTRACT
Objective: The objective of the study is to estimate the prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and identify factors linked to it in pregnant Mexican adult and adolescent women. Methods: Data were gathered by the National Survey of Violence against Women (2006), applied to women between the ages 15-49, users of Mexican public health institutions. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the significant factors associated with IPV against pregnant women. Results: Both adolescent and adult study participating women showed a 24% prevalence of current IPV (during the previous 12 months). The study’s multivariate model for adult women revealed the following as main predictors for IPV: a woman’s agreement with traditional gender roles (OR = 4.35, CI95% = 2.20 - 8.60), and women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (OR = 2.76, CI95% = 1.68 - 4.55). The main predictor of IPV in pregnant adolescents was their partners’ frequency of alcohol consumption: often/usually (OR = 6.49, CI95% = 2.18 - 19.33). Conclusion: To this date, Mexico has not been able to guarantee universal screening methods for IPV as a part of prenatal care protocols. The phenomenon of IPV towards pregnant women neither has been followed-up by further research nor has been identified as a public health problem in spite of the seriousness of its implications for women and their offspring.

Cite this paper
Santiago, R. , Iñiguez, M. , Solorzano, E. , Burgos, L. and Monreal, L. (2014) Do Pregnant Teens Have Higher Risk of Intimate Partner Violence than Pregnant Adult Women in Mexico?. Health, 6, 2814-2824. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.620320.
References
[1]   Valdez-Santiago, R. and Sanin-Aguirre, LH. (1996) Domestic Violence during Pregnancy and Its Relationship with Birth Weight. Salud Pública de México, 38, 352-362. La violencia domestica durante el embarazo y su relacion con el peso al nacer. spa.

[2]   Nunez-Rivas, H.P., Monge-Rojas, R., Grios-Davila, C., Elizondo-Urena, A.M. and Rojas-Chavarria, A. (2003) Physical, Psychological, Emotional, and Sexual Violence during Pregnancy as a Reproductive-Risk Predictor of Low Birth-weight in Costa Rica. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, 14, 75-83. La violencia fisica, psicologica, emocional y sexual durante el embarazo: Riesgo reproductivo predictor de bajo peso al nacer en Costa Rica. spa.

[3]   Pallitto, C.C. and O’Campo, P. (2004) The Relationship between Intimate Partner Violence and Unintended Pregnancy: Analysis of a National Sample from Colombia. International Family Planning Perspectives, 30, 165-173.

[4]   Castro, R. and Ruiz, A. (2004) Prevalence and Severity of Domestic Violence among Pregnant Women, Mexico. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, 38, 62-70. Prevalencia y severidad de la violencia contra mujeres embarazadas, Mexico. spa.

[5]   Colombo, G., Ynoub, R.C., Viglizzo, M., Veneranda, L., Iglesias, G. and Stropparo, P. (2005) Prevalencia de casos de violencia familiar contra la mujer en la etapa de embarazo, parto y puerperio. Convergencia Revista de Ciencias Sociales, Mayo-Agosto 2005, 81-107.

[6]   Paredes-Solis, S., Villegas-Arrizon, A., Meneses-Renteria, A., Rodriguez-Ramos, I.E., Reyes-De Jesus, L. and Andersson, N. (2005) Violence during Pregnancy: A Population Based Study in Ometepec, Guerrero, Mexico. Salud Pública de México, 47, 335-341. Violencia fisica intrafamiliar contra la embarazada: un estudio con base poblacional en Ometepec, Guerrero, Mexico. spa.

[7]   Valladares, E., Pena, R., Persson, L.A. and Hogberg, U. (2005) Violence against Pregnant Women: Prevalence and Characteristics. A Population-Based Study in Nicaragua. BJOG, 112, 1243-1248.

[8]   Nunes, M.A., Camey, S., Ferri, C.P., Manzolli, P., Manenti, C.N. and Schmidt, M.I. (2010) Violence during Pregnancy and Newborn Outcomes: A Cohort Study in a Disadvantaged Population in Brazil. The European Journal of Public Health, 21, 92-97.

[9]   Amaro, H., Fried, L.E., Cabral, H. and Zuckerman, B. (1990) Violence during Pregnancy and Substance Use. American Journal of Public Health, 80, 575-579.

[10]   Murphy, C.C., Schei, B., Myhr, T.L. and Du Mont, J. (2001) Abuse: A Risk Factor for Low Birth Weight? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 164, 1567-1572.

[11]   Espinoza, H. and Camacho, A.V. (2005) Maternal Death Due to Domestic Violence: An Unrecognized Critical Component of Maternal Mortality. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, 17, 123-129.

[12]   McFarlane, J., Parker, B. and Soeken, K. (1996) Abuse during Pregnancy: Associations with Maternal Health and Infant Birth Weight. Nursing Research, 45, 37-42.

[13]   Decker, M.R., Martin, S.L. and Moracco, K.E. (2004) Homicide Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Abused by Their Partners: Who Leaves the Perpetrator and Who Stays? Violence against Women, 10, 498-513.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801204264353

[14]   Parker, B., McFarlane, J. and Soeken, K. (1994) Abuse during Pregnancy: Effects on Maternal Complications and Birth Weight in Adult and Teenage Women. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 84, 323-328.

[15]   Kulkarni, S. (2006) Interpersonal Violence at the Crossroads between Adolescence and Adulthood: Learning about Partner Violence from Young Mothers. Violence against Women, 12, 187-207.

[16]   Bullock, L.F. and McFarlane, J. (1989) The Birth-Weight/Battering Connection. American Journal of Nursing, 89, 1153-1155.

[17]   CNEGSR, Ed. (2009) Encuesta Nacional Sobre Violencia Contra las Mujeres 2006. Centro Nacional de Equidad de Género y Salud Reproductiva, SSA, México, Distrito Federal.

[18]   Valdez-Santiago, R., Hijar-Medina, M.C., Salgado de Snyder, V.N., Rivera-Rivera, L., Avila-Burgos, L. and Rojas, R. (2006) Violence Scale and Severity Index: A Methodological Proposal for Measuring Violence by the Partner in Mexican Women. Salud Pública de México, 48, S221-S231.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-36342006000800002

[19]   ávila-Burgos, L., Valdez-Santiago, R., Barroso-Quiab, A., Híjar, M., Rojas, R. and del Rio-Zolezzi, A. (2014) Prevalence and Factors Associated with Intimate Partner Abuse in Female Users of Public Health Services in México: A Comparative Analysis. Revista de Investigación Clínica, 66, 45-58.
www.imbiomed.com.mx

[20]   Kolenikov, S. and Angeles, G. (2004) The Use of Discrete Data in PCA: Theory, Simulations, and Applications to Socioeconomic Indices. Working Paper WP-04-85, MEASURE Evaluation, Chapel Hill.
http://www.cpc.unc.edu/measure/publications/wp-04-85

[21]   Nasir, K. and Hyder, A. (2003) Violence against Women in Developing Countries. European Journal of Public Health, 13, 105-107.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/13.2.105

[22]   Doubova Dubova, S.V., Pamanes-Gonzalez, V., Billings, D.L. and Torres-Arreola Ldel, P. (2007) Partner Violence against Pregnant Women in Mexico City. Revista de Saúde Pública, 41, 582-590. Violencia de pareja en mujeres embarazadas en la Ciudad de Mexico. Spa.

[23]   SSA. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM 046-SSA2-2005 (2005) Violencia Familiar, Sexual y Contra las Mujeres. SSA. México, Distrito Federal.

[24]   Rico, E., Fenn, B., Abramsky, T. and Watts, C. (2011) Associations between Maternal Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence and Child Nutrition and Mortality: Findings from Demographic and Health Surveys in Egypt, Honduras, Kenya, Malawi and Rwanda. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 65, 360-367.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.2008.081810

[25]   Kiely, M., El-Mohandes, A.A., El-Khorazaty, M.N., Blake, S.M. and Gantz, M.G. (2010) An Integrated Intervention to Reduce Intimate Partner Violence in Pregnancy: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 115, 273-283.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181cbd482

 
 
Top