The Calculations of General Relativity on Massive Celestial Bodies Collapsing into Singular Black Holes Are Wrong

ABSTRACT

Based on general relativity, J. R. Oppenheimer proved that massive celestial bodies may collapse into singular black holes with infinite densities. By analyzing the original paper of Oppenheimer, this paper reveals that the calculations had a series and serious of mistakes. The basic problem is that the calculation supposes that the density of celestial body does not change with space-time coordinates. The density is firstly assumed invariable with space coordinates and then it is assumed invariable with time. But at last, the conclusion that the density of a celestial body becomes infinity is deduced. The premise contradicts with conclusion. In fact, there is no restriction on the initial density and radius for celestial body in the calculation. According to the calculation results of Oppenheimer, a cloud of thin gas may also collapse into singular black hole under the action of gravity. The calculations neglect great rotating speeds of massive and high density celestial bodies which would make them falling apart rather than collapsing into singularities. Because we do not know the function relations that material densities depend on space-time coordinates in advance, there exists the rationality problem of procedure using the Einstein’s equation of gravity field to calculate material collapse. Besides these physical problems, the calculation of Oppenheimer also has some obvious mistakes in mathematics. Another improved method to calculate massive celestial body’s collapse also has similar problems. The results are also unreliable. The conclusion of this paper is that up to now general relativity actually has not proved that massive celestial bodies may collapse into singularity black holes.

Based on general relativity, J. R. Oppenheimer proved that massive celestial bodies may collapse into singular black holes with infinite densities. By analyzing the original paper of Oppenheimer, this paper reveals that the calculations had a series and serious of mistakes. The basic problem is that the calculation supposes that the density of celestial body does not change with space-time coordinates. The density is firstly assumed invariable with space coordinates and then it is assumed invariable with time. But at last, the conclusion that the density of a celestial body becomes infinity is deduced. The premise contradicts with conclusion. In fact, there is no restriction on the initial density and radius for celestial body in the calculation. According to the calculation results of Oppenheimer, a cloud of thin gas may also collapse into singular black hole under the action of gravity. The calculations neglect great rotating speeds of massive and high density celestial bodies which would make them falling apart rather than collapsing into singularities. Because we do not know the function relations that material densities depend on space-time coordinates in advance, there exists the rationality problem of procedure using the Einstein’s equation of gravity field to calculate material collapse. Besides these physical problems, the calculation of Oppenheimer also has some obvious mistakes in mathematics. Another improved method to calculate massive celestial body’s collapse also has similar problems. The results are also unreliable. The conclusion of this paper is that up to now general relativity actually has not proved that massive celestial bodies may collapse into singularity black holes.

Cite this paper

Mei, X. (2014) The Calculations of General Relativity on Massive Celestial Bodies Collapsing into Singular Black Holes Are Wrong.*International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics*, **4**, 656-667. doi: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.44060.

Mei, X. (2014) The Calculations of General Relativity on Massive Celestial Bodies Collapsing into Singular Black Holes Are Wrong.

References

[1] Chandrasekhar, S. (1935) The Highly Collapsed Configurations of a Stellar Mass. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 95, 207-225.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/95.3.207

[2] Oppenheimer, J.R. and Volkoff, G.M. (1939) On Massive Neutron Cores. Physical Review Letters, 55, 374.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.55.374

[3] Oppenheimer, J.R. and Snyder, H. (1939) On Continued Gravitational Contraction. Physical Review Letters, 54, 455-459.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.56.455

[4] Weinberg, S. (1972) Gravity and Cosmology. John Wily, Hoboken.

[5] Milne, E.A. (2000) A Newtonian Expanding Universe. General Relativity and Gravitation, 32, 1939-1948.

[6] Tolman, R.C. (1934) Effect of Inhomogeneity on Cosmological Models. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 20, 169-176.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.20.3.169

[7] Mei, X.C. (2011) The Precise Inner Solutions of Gravity Field Equations of Hollow and Solid Spheres and the Theorem of Singularity. International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1, 109-116.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ijaa.2011.13016

[8] Mei, X.C. (2013) The Singularities of Gravitational Fields of Static Thin Loop and Double Spheres Reveal the Impossibility of Singularity Black Holes. Journal of Modern Physics, 4, 974-982.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2013.47131

[9] Schild, R.E., Leiter, D.J. and Robertson, S.L. (2010) Black Hole or Meco: Decided by a Thin Luminous Ring Structure Deep within Quasar Q0957+561. Journal of Cosmology, 6, 1400-1437.

[10] Schild, R.E., et al. (2006) Observations Supporting the Existence of an Intrinsic Magnetic Moment inside the Central Compact Object within the Quasar Q0957+561. The Astronomical Journal, 132, 420.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/504898

[11] Mei, X. and Yu, P. (2012) Revised Newtonian Formula of Gravity and Equation of Cosmology in Flat Space-Time Transformed from Schwarzschild Solution. International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1, 6-29.

[12] Mei, X. and Yu, P. (2013) Cosmology Should Directly Use the Doppler’s Formula to Calculate the Red Shift of Ia Supernova. International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 3, 303-317.

[1] Chandrasekhar, S. (1935) The Highly Collapsed Configurations of a Stellar Mass. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 95, 207-225.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/95.3.207

[2] Oppenheimer, J.R. and Volkoff, G.M. (1939) On Massive Neutron Cores. Physical Review Letters, 55, 374.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.55.374

[3] Oppenheimer, J.R. and Snyder, H. (1939) On Continued Gravitational Contraction. Physical Review Letters, 54, 455-459.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.56.455

[4] Weinberg, S. (1972) Gravity and Cosmology. John Wily, Hoboken.

[5] Milne, E.A. (2000) A Newtonian Expanding Universe. General Relativity and Gravitation, 32, 1939-1948.

[6] Tolman, R.C. (1934) Effect of Inhomogeneity on Cosmological Models. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 20, 169-176.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.20.3.169

[7] Mei, X.C. (2011) The Precise Inner Solutions of Gravity Field Equations of Hollow and Solid Spheres and the Theorem of Singularity. International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1, 109-116.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ijaa.2011.13016

[8] Mei, X.C. (2013) The Singularities of Gravitational Fields of Static Thin Loop and Double Spheres Reveal the Impossibility of Singularity Black Holes. Journal of Modern Physics, 4, 974-982.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2013.47131

[9] Schild, R.E., Leiter, D.J. and Robertson, S.L. (2010) Black Hole or Meco: Decided by a Thin Luminous Ring Structure Deep within Quasar Q0957+561. Journal of Cosmology, 6, 1400-1437.

[10] Schild, R.E., et al. (2006) Observations Supporting the Existence of an Intrinsic Magnetic Moment inside the Central Compact Object within the Quasar Q0957+561. The Astronomical Journal, 132, 420.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/504898

[11] Mei, X. and Yu, P. (2012) Revised Newtonian Formula of Gravity and Equation of Cosmology in Flat Space-Time Transformed from Schwarzschild Solution. International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1, 6-29.

[12] Mei, X. and Yu, P. (2013) Cosmology Should Directly Use the Doppler’s Formula to Calculate the Red Shift of Ia Supernova. International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 3, 303-317.