AS  Vol.5 No.14 , December 2014
Comparison of Grain Zinc and Iron Concentration between Synthetic Hexaploid Wheats and Their Parents
Deficiencies of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in human food afflict a large proportion of the world’s population. Wheat is a major food source of minerals. One way to enhance bread wheat’s ability to enrich these minerals would be to take advantage of diversity of wild species by creating synthetic hexaploid wheat (SW). In this study, two minerals (Fe and Zn) concentrated in the grain of Aegilops tauschii Coss. (2n = 2x = 14, DD), Triticum turgidum L. (2n = 4x = 28, AABB), and 33 lines of their corresponding SW (2n = 2x = 42, AABBDD) were evaluated. The results showed that Fe concentration was decreased in most of SW lines compared with their parental Aegilops tauschii accessions, while Zn concentration was greatly increased in most of SW lines compared with their parental Aegilops tauschii accessions. Aegilops tauschii had stronger Fe enrichment than Triticum turgidum while they expressed the same ability for Zn enrichment. The genotypic variance based on their physiological performance was analyzed. SW lines showed less genotypic variance of Fe and Zn concentration than Aegilops tauschii. SW lines showed less genotypic variance of Fe concentration than Triticum turgidum L. lines while they had more genotypic variance of Zn concentration than Triticum turgidum L. lines. Regardless of the fact that the traits expressed in wild relatives of wheat may not predict the traits that will be expressed in SW lines derived from them, production of SW could be a powerful method creating genotypes with enhanced trait expression.

Cite this paper
Zhang, B. , Chen, W. , Liu, B. , Zhang, L. , Zhao, D. , Xiao, Y. , Liu, D. and Zhang, H. (2014) Comparison of Grain Zinc and Iron Concentration between Synthetic Hexaploid Wheats and Their Parents. Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1433-1439. doi: 10.4236/as.2014.514154.
[1]   Welch, R.M. and Graham, R.D. (2004) Breeding for Micronutrients in Staple Food Crops from a Human Nutrition Perspective. Journal of Experimental Botany, 55, 353-364.

[2]   Cakmak, I. (2008) Enrichment of Cereal Grain with Zinc: Agronomic or Genetic Biofortification? Plant Soil, 302, 1-17.

[3]   FAO (2006) The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2006. Statistics Division, United Nations, Rome.

[4]   Joshi, A.K., Crossa, J., Arun, B., Chand, R., Trethowan, R., Vargas, M. and Ortiz-Monasterio, I. (2010) Genotype × Environment Interaction Forzinc and Iron Concentration of Wheat Grain in Eastern Gangetic Plains of India. Field Crops Research, 116, 268-277.

[5]   Morgounov, A., Gómez-Becerra, H.F., Abugalieva, A., Dzhunusova, M., Yessimbekova, M., Muminjanov, H., Zelenskiy, Y., Ozturk, L. and Cakmak, I. (2007) Iron and Zinc Grain Density in Common Wheat Grown in Central Asia. Euphytica, 155, 193-203.

[6]   Zhao, F.J., Su, Y.H., Dunham, S.J., Rakszegi, M., Bedo, Z., McGrath, S.P. and Shewry, P.R. (2009) Variation in Mineral Micronutrient Concentrations in Grain of Wheat Lines of Diverse Origin. Journal of Cereal Science, 49, 290-295.

[7]   Cakmak, I., Ozkan, H., Braun, H.J., Welch, R.M. and Romheld, V. (2000) Zinc and Iron Concentrations in Seeds of Wild, Primitive and Modern Wheats. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 21, 401-403.

[8]   Monasterio, I. and Graham, R.D. (2000) Breeding for Trace Minerals in Wheat. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 21, 392-396.

[9]   Chhuneja, P., Dhaliwal, H.S., Bains, N.S. and Singh, K. (2006) Aegilopskotschyi and Aegilops tauschii Are the Sources for High Grain Iron and Zinc. Plant Breed, 125, 529-531.

[10]   Rawat, N., Tiwari, V.K., Singh, N., Randhawa, G.S., Singh, K., Chhuneja, P. and Dhaliwal, H.S. (2008) Evaluation and Tilization of Aegilops and Wild Triticum Species for Enhancing Iron and Zinc Content in Wheat. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 56, 53-64.

[11]   Kihara, H.(1944)Discovery of the DD-Analyser, One of the Ancestors of Triticum vulgare (abstr) (in Japanese). Agriculture and Horticulture, 19, 889-890.

[12]   McFadden, E.S. and Sears, E.R.(1944)The Artificial Synthesis of Triticum spelta. Records of the Genetics Society of America, 13, 26-27.

[13]   Kihara, H., Yamashita, K. and Tanaka, M. (1965) Morphological, Physiological, Genetic and Cytological Studies in Aegilops and Triticum Collected from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. In: Yamashita, K., Ed., Results of the Kyoto University Scientific Expedition to the Karakoram and Hindukush, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 1-118.

[14]   Yen, C., Yang, J.L. and Liu, X.D. (1983) The Distribution of Aegilops tauschii Cosson in China and with Reference to the Origin of the Chinese Common Wheat. Proceedings of the 6th International Wheat Genetics Symposium, Kyoto, 28 November-3 December 1983, 55-58.

[15]   Jakaska, V. (1995) Isoenzymes in the Evaluation of Germplasm Diversity in Wild Diploid Relatives of Cultivated Wheat. In: Damania, A.B., Ed., Biodiversity and Wheat Improvement, ICARDA, Wiley-Sayce Publ., London, 247-257.

[16]   Dudnikov, A.J. and Goncharov, N.P. (1993) Allozyme Variation in Aegilops squarrosa. Hereditas, 119, 117-122.

[17]   Dvorak, J., Luo, M.C., Yang, Z.L. and Zhang, H.B. (1998) The Structure of the Aegilops tauschii Genepool and the Evolution of Hexaploid Wheat. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 97, 657-670.

[18]   Dudnikov, A.J. and Kawahara, T. (2006) Aegilops tauschii: Genetic Variation in Iran. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 53, 579-586.

[19]   Wang, S.W., Lina, Y., Hiroyuki, T., Kiyoshi, T. and Hisashi, T. (2011) Wheat-Aegilops Chromosome Addition Lines Showing High Iron and Zinc Contents in Grains. Breeding Science, 61, 189-195.

[20]   Zhang, L., Zhang, L., Luo, J., Chen, W., Hao, M., Liu, B., Yan, Z., Zhang, B., Zhang, H., Zheng, Y., Liu, D. and Yen, Y. (2011) Synthesizing Double Haploid Hexaploid Wheat Populations Based on a Spontaneous Alloploidization Process. Journal of Genetics and Genomics, 38, 89-94.

[21]   Orhan, A., Ali, R.T. and Ziya, K. (2008) Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Iron, Magnesium, Strontium and Zinc in Human Teeth Using La + K Mixture. Acta Chimica Slovenica, 55, 462-467.

[22]   Cakmak, I., Torun, A., ?zkan, H., Millet, E., Feldman, M., Fahima, T., Korol, A.B., Nevo, E. and Braun, H.J. (2004) Triticum dicoccoides: An Important Genetic Resource for Increasing Zinc and Iron Concentration in Modern Cultivated Wheat. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 50, 1047-1054.

[23]   Tiwari, V.K., Rawat, N., Neelam, K., Kumar, S., Randhawa, G.S. and Dhaliwal, H.S. (2010) Substitution of 2S and 7U Chromosomes of Aegilops kotschyi in Wheat Enhances Grain Iron and Zinc Concentration. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 121, 259-269.

[24]   Sohail, Q., Inoue, T., Tanaka, H., Eltayeb, A.E., Matsuoka, Y. and Tsujimoto, H. (2011) Applicability of Aegilops tauschii Drought Tolerance Traits to Breeding of Hexaploid Wheat. Breeding Science, 61, 347-357.

[25]   Wang, J., Tian, L., Madlung, A., Lee, H.-S., Chen, M., Lee, J.J., Watson, B., Kagochi, T., Comai, L. and Chen, Z.J. (2004) Stochastic and Epigenetic Changes of Gene Expression in Arabidopsis Polyploids. Genetics, 167, 1961-1973.

[26]   Takumi, S., Naka, Y., Morihiro, H. and Matsuoka, Y. (2009) Expression of Morphological and Flowering Time Variation through Allopolyploidization: An Empirical Study with 27 Wheat Synthetics and Their Parental Aegilops tauschii Accessions. Plant Breed, 128, 585-590.

[27]   Fujwara, Y., Shimada, S., Takumi, S. and Mura, K. (2010) Differential Effects of Aegilops tauschii Genotypes on Maturing-Time in Synthetic Hexaploid Wheats. Breeding Science, 60, 286-292.

[28]   Ozkan, H., Levy, A.A. and Feldman, M. (2001) Allopolyploidy Induced Rapid Genome Evolution in the Wheat Aegilops triticum) Group. Plant Cell, 13, 1735-1747.

[29]   Shaked, H., Kashkush, K., Ozkan, H., Feldman, M. and Levy, A.A. (2001) Sequence Elimination and Cytosine Methylation Are Rapid and Reproducible Responses of the Genome to Wide Hybridization and Allopolyploidy in Wheat. Plant Cell, 13, 1749-1759.

[30]   Madlung, A., Madlung, A., Masuelli, R.W., Watson, B., Reynolds, S.H., Davison, J. and Comai, L. (2002) Remodeling of DNA Methylation and Phenotypic and Transcriptional Changes in Synthetic Arabidopsis Allotetraploids. Plant Physiology, 129, 733-746.

[31]   Khasdan, V., Yaakov, B., Kraitshtein, Z. and Kashkush, K. (2010) Developmental Timing of DNA Elimination Following Allopolyploidization in Wheat. Genetics, 185, 387-390.

[32]   Luo, J., Hao, M., Zhang, L., Chen, J., Zhang, L., Yuan, Z., Yan, Z., Zheng, Y., Zhang, H., Yen, Y. and Liu, D. (2012) Microsatellite Mutation Rate during Allohexaploidization of Newly Resynthesized Wheat. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 13, 12533-12543.