OJVM  Vol.4 No.12 , December 2014
Molecular Characterization and Prevalence of Trypanosoma Species in Cattle from a Northern Livestock Area in Côte d’Ivoire
Abstract: Background: African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) is caused mainly by Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax, and T. brucei brucei and is the major constraint for livestock productivity in Sub-Saharan African countries. Information about animal trypanosomiasis status in Ivory Coast is missing, especially regarding molecular epidemiology. Therefore, this study intended to apply molecular tools to identify and characterize trypanosomes in Ivory Coast for sustainable control. Methods: 363 cattle blood samples were collected from Ferkessedougou Region in northern Ivory Coast in 2012. Buffy coat technique (BCT) and species-specific PCR assays were used to detect trypanosome species. Results: Out of 363 cattle examined with BCT, 33 were found positive with all trypanosomes species accounting for an average of 9.09% prevalence whereas polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using species-specific primers showed that 81 out of 363 cattle were infected with trypanosomes with an overall prevalence of 22.31%. Trypanosoma congolense savanah type, T. Vivax and T. brucei sl. accounted for 28.39%, 49.38% and 23.45% of the infection rate respectively. No infection with T. congo forest type was detected. T. vivax infection was the most prevalence in the area investigated compared to the two other trypanosome species. Mixed infections with different trypanosomes species were detected accounting for 7.32% of prevalence. Regarding sexrelated prevalence, male cattles were slightly more infected than female but the difference was not significant. Conclusion: Our results showed that there was a high prevalence of AAT in livestock in Ferkessedougou Area. There is therefore a need to strengthen control policies and institute measures that help prevent the spread of the parasites for sustainable control of animal trypanosome in this area.
Cite this paper: Kouadio, I. , Sokouri, D. , Koffi, M. , Konaté, I. , Ahouty, B. , Koffi, A. and N’Guetta, S. (2014) Molecular Characterization and Prevalence of Trypanosoma Species in Cattle from a Northern Livestock Area in Côte d’Ivoire. Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 4, 314-321. doi: 10.4236/ojvm.2014.412038.

[1]   Torgerson, P.R. and Macpherson, C.N.L. (2011) The Socio-Economic Burden of Parasitic Zoonoses: Global Trends. Veterinary Parasitology, 182, 79-95.

[2]   Schofield, C.J. and Kabayo, J.P. (2008) Trypanosomiasis Vector Control in Africa and Latin America. Parasit Vectors, 1, 24.

[3]   Picozzi, K., Tilley, A., Fevre, E.M., Coleman, P.G., Magona, J.W., Odiit, M., Eisler, M. and Welburn, S. (2002) The Diagnosis of Trypanosome Infections: Applications of Novel Technology for Reducing Disease Risk. African Journal of Biotechnology, 1, 39-45.

[4]   Coulibaly, L., Hecker, P.A., Krebs, H.A., Rowlands, G.J., d’Ieteren, G.D.M., Leak, S.G.A., Peregrine, A.S. and Nagda, S.M. (1997) Failure of Trypanocidal Drugs to Cure Trypanosome Infections in Cattle in Boundiali District, Northern Côte d’Ivoire. In OUA/CSTR, 21, 248-249.

[5]   D’Ieteren, G., Coulibaly, L., Atse, P.A., Hecker, P.A., Krebs, H.A., Rowlands, G.J., Leak, S.G.A. and Nagda, S.M. (1997) Trypanocidal Drug Resistance in Four Regions of Côte d’Ivoire: Importance and Possible Impact on Sustainability of Integrated Strategies for Trypanosomiasis Control. In OUA/CSTR, 21, 233-247.

[6]   Murray, M., Murray, P.K. and McIntyre, W.I. (1977) An Improved Parasitological Technique for the Diagnosis of African Trypanosomiasis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 71, 325-326.

[7]   Corp, S. (2006) Stata Statistical Software: Release 9.2. Stata CORPoration, Texas.

[8]   Bocum, Z., Diarra, M., Maiga, H.M., Sanogo, M., Sylla, M.S.M. and Diall, O. (2012) Prevalence in the Bovine Trypanosomiasis Kadiolo Circle. Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education, 2, 9.

[9]   Gebreyohannes, M. and Legesse, F. (2014) Epidemiological Study of Bovine Trypanosomiasis in Woliso Woreda, Ethiopia. Journal of Animal Science Advances, 4, 833-838.

[10]   Fasanmi, O.G., Okoroafor, U.P., Nwufoh, O.C., Bukola-Oladele, O.M. and Ajibola, E.S. (2014) Survey for Trypanosoma Species in Cattle from Three Farms in Iddo Local Government Area, Oyo State. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 12, 57-61.

[11]   Camus, E. (1981) Epidemiology and Clinical Incidence of Bovine Trypanosomiasis in the North of the Ivory Coast. Revue d’Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 34, 289-295.

[12]   Bocoum, Z., Diarra, M., Maiga, H.M., Diall, O., Guindo, M., et al. (2010) Study of the Evolution of Bovine Try- panosomosis Risk in Madina Diassa Ranch Dry Season Fresh. Review of Malian Science and Technology No. 12-CNRST 5, 119-123.

[13]   Mungube, E.O., Vitouley, H.S., Allegye-Cudjoe, E., Diall, O., Boucoum, Z., Diarra, B., Sanogo, Y., Randolph, T., Bauer, B., Zessin, K.H. and Clausen, P.H. (2012) Detection of Multiple Drug-Resistant Trypanosoma congolense Populations in Village Cattle of South-East Mali. Parasites & Vectors, 5, 155.

[14]   Ogunsanmi, A.O., Ikede, B.O. and Akpavie, S.O. (2000) Effects of Management, Season, Vegetation Zone and Breed on the Prevalence of Bovine Trypanosomiasis in South Western Nigeria. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 55, 1- 7.

[15]   McDermott, J., Woitag, T., Sidibe, I., Bauer, B., Diarra, B., Ouédraogo, D., et al. (2003) Field Studies of Drug-Resistant Cattle Trypanosomes in Kenedougou Province, Burkina Faso. Acta Tropica, 86, 93-103.

[16]   Thumbi, S.M., McOdimba, F.A., Mosi, R.O. and Jung’a, J.O. (2008) Comparative Evaluation of Three PCR Base Diagnostic Assays for the Detection of Pathogenic Trypanosomes in Cattle Blood. Parasites & Vectors, 1, 46.

[17]   Nimpaye, H., Njiokou, F., Njine, T., Njitchouang, G.R., Cuny, G., Herder, S., Asonganyi, T. and Simo, G. (2012) Molecular Epidemiological Studies on Animal Trypanosomiases in Ghana. Parasites & Vectors, 5, 217.

[18]   Authié, E., Bringaud, F., Bakalara, N., Tétaud, E. and Baltz, T. (1999) Trypanosomoses humaines et animales: Maladie du sommeil et Nagana. Annales de l’Institut Pasteur/Actualités, 10, 27-50.

[19]   Sidibe, I., Bengaly, Z., Boly, H., Ganaba, R., Desquesnes, M. and Sawadogo, L. (2002) Differential Pathogenicity of Trypanosoma congolense Subgroup: Implication for the Strategic Control of Trypanosomiasis. Newsletter on Integrated Control of Pathogenic Trypanosomes and Their Vectors (I.C.P.T.V), 6, 33-35.

[20]   Bengaly, Z., Sidibe, I., Boly, H., Sawadogo, L. and Desquesnes, M. (2002) Comparative Pathogenicity of Three Genetically Distinct Trypanosoma congolense-Types in Inbred Balb/c Mice. Veterinary Parasitology, 105, 111-118.

[21]   Cox, F.E. (2001) Concomitant Infections, Parasites and Immune Responses. Parasitology, 122, S23-S38.

[22]   Abenga, J.N., Enwezor, F.N.C., Lawani, F.A.G., Osue, H.O. and Ikemereh, E.C. (2004) Trypanosome Prevalence in Cattle in Lere Area of Kaduna State, North Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Veterinary Research, 57, 45-48.