Different kinds of aluminum precursors were obtained from precipitating ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate, and saturated ammonium bicarbonate, then, boehmite (AlO(OH)), ammonium alumina carbonate hydroxide (AACH) and their mixture were obtained, and then, different kinds of alumina were obtained after calcination. Three catalysts supported on the different alumina were obtained via impregnating cobalt and ruthenium by incipient wetness. The effects of different precipitants on composition of precursors were studied by XRD, FTIR, and TGA. The property and structure of alumina were studied by XRD and BET. The supported catalysts were studied by characterizations of XRD and H2-TPR, and the catalytic performance for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) were evaluated at a fix-bed reactor. The relations among the composition of precursors, the property of alumina and the catalytic performance of supported catalysts were researched thoroughly.