AiM  Vol.4 No.16 , December 2014
Variation of the Consumption of Mushrooms by Pygmies and Bantus in the North of Gabon
Abstract: A comparative study of the number of taxa and fungal biomass consumed by the Pygmies and the Bantus of Gabon has been realized in two Gabon north regions (Ogooue-Ivindo and the Woleu-Ntem). This study has allowed not only to establish the list of consumed fungal sorts by those populations, but also to estimate the daily consumed fungal biomasses by each ethnical group. The study has revealed a significant difference between a numbers of taxa and the quantity of mushrooms consumed by various ethnical groups: the Pygmies of the area who live especially by hunting and fishing consumed 96% of the recorded taxa with some high mushrooms quantities (around 3 kg/day/family); the Bantus who live nearby Pygmies also consumed some high mushrooms quantities (around 2 kg/day/family) but a low taxa number (56% of taxa counted by the Fang; 69% by the Kota; 39% by the Kwele); on the other hand, the Bantus living nearest the Pygmies consumed a high taxa number as much as Pygmies (around 90% of taxa counted) but eat a lower mushrooms quantities than theirs distant congeners Pygmies (around 800 g/day/family).
Cite this paper: Ndong, H. , Mounguengui, S. , Attéké, C. and Ndong, G. (2014) Variation of the Consumption of Mushrooms by Pygmies and Bantus in the North of Gabon. Advances in Microbiology, 4, 1212-1221. doi: 10.4236/aim.2014.416131.

[1]   White, F. (1983) Vegetation of Africa. UNESCO, Paris.

[2]   Degreef, J. (1990) Inventory, Food Value and Culture of the Edible Mushrooms of Shaba. Memory of the End of Study. Pulpit of Ecology and Phytosociology, Faculty of Agronomic Science of Gembloux, Belgium.

[3]   Degreef, J., Malaisse, F., Rammeloo, J. and Baudart, E. (1997) Edible Mushrooms of the Zambezian Woodland Area: A Nutritional and Ecological Approach. BASE: Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment, 1, 221-231.

[4]   De Kesel, A., Codjia, J.T.C. and Yorou, S.N. (2002) Guide of the Edible Mushrooms of Benin, Cotonou, Republic of Benin. National Botanical Garden of Belgium and Eco International Center Development Integrated (CECODI), Printing office, Coco-Multimedia, 275.

[5]   Drouneau, S. and Nasi, R. (1999) The Forest Arrangement (Development) in the Gabon: History, Balance Sheet (Assessment), Perspectives. Forafri, No. 19, CIRAD-Forêt, Montpellier, 64 p.

[6]   Eyi Ndong, H. C. (2009) Study of the Mushrooms of the Wet Dense Forest Consumed by the Populations of the North of the Gabon. Doctorate Thesis, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, 271 p.

[7]   Eyi Ndong, H.C., Degreef, J. and De Kesel, A. (2011) Edible Mushrooms of the Dense Forests of Central Africa Taxonomy and Identification. ABC Taxa, 10, 262 p.

[8]   Heinemann, P. (1975) Volvariella. Illustrated Flora of the Mushrooms of Central Africa, 4, 75-84, pl. 13-14.

[9]   Heinemann, P. (1959) Cantharellineae. Illustrated Flora of the Fungi of the Congo, 8, 153-165, pl. 26-28.

[10]   Pegler, D.N. (1972) Lentineae (Polyporaceae), Schizophyllaceae et espèces lentinoïdes et pleurotoïdes des Tricholomataceae. Illustrated Flora of the Mushrooms of Central Africa, 1, 13-15, pl. 3-4.

[11]   Verbeken, A. and Walleyn, R. (2012) Monograph of Lactarius in Tropical Africa. Fungus Flora of Tropical Africa, 2, 161 p + 54 pl.

[12]   Vladimír, A. (2007) Monograph of Marasmius, Gloiocephala, Palaeocephala and Setulipes in Tropical Africa. Fungus Flora of Tropical Africa, 1, 177 p + 19 pl.

[13]   Carletti, I. (2005) Study of Methods of the Transformation (Processing) in Rows Aligned as Alternatives Not Parametrical in the Analysis of the Variance for the Factorial Plans Balanced in Two Fixed Effects. Doctorate Thesis, University Faculty of the Agronomic Sciences Gembloux, Belgium.

[14]   Morris, B. (1984) Macrofungi of Malawi: Some Ethnobotanical Notes. Bulletin of the British Mycological Society, 18, 48-57.

[15]   Buyck, B. (1994) Ubwoba: The Western Edible Mushrooms of Burundi. General Administration of the Cooperation in the Development, Brussels.

[16]   Buyck, B. and Nzigidahera, B. (1995) Ethnomycological Notes from Western Burundi. Belgian Journal of Botany, 128, 131-138.

[17]   Pegler, D.N. and Piearce, G.D. (1980) The Edible Mushrooms of Zambia. Kew Bulletin, 35, 475-491.

[18]   Härkönen, M., Saarimäki, T. and Mwasumbi, L. (1995) Edible Mushrooms of Tanzania. Karsteni, 35, 1-92.

[19]   Malaisse, F., De Kesel, A., N’Gasse, G. and Lognay, G. (2004) Diversity of Mushrooms Eaten by Bofi Pygmies of the Lobaye (Central African Republic). Tropical Ecology and Geology, 28, 1-12.

[20]   Yorou, S.N. and De Kesel, A. (2001) An Ethnomycological Study Was Undertaken amongst the Nagot People from Central Benin (West Africa). In: Robbrecht, E., Degreef, J. and Friis, I., Eds., Plant Systematics and Phytogeography for the Understanding of African Biodiversity. Proceedings of the 16th AETFAT Congress, National Botanic Garden of Belgium, Meise, 614-625.

[21]   Mossebo, D.C., Amougou, A. and Atangana, R.E. (2002) Contribution to the Knowledge of Termitomyces (Tropical Basidiomycetes) from Cameroon: Ecology and Systematics. Bulletin de la Société Mycologique de France, 118, 195-249.

[22]   Mossebo, D.C., NjounKou, A.L., Piatek, M., Kengni Ayissi, B. and Djamndo Djasse, M. (2009) Termitomyces striatus f. pileatus f. nov. and f. brunneus f. nov. from Cameroon with a Key to Central African Species. Mycotaxon, 107, 315-329.

[23]   Heim, R. (1936) Perceived on the Toxic and Edible Mushrooms of the French Colonies (Summer Camps). Pathology of the Exotic Vétérinary. Companion, 3, 1-31.

[24]   Locquin, M. (1954) An Edible Chanterelle of Ivory Coast: Hygrophoropsis mangenotii sp. nov. Newspaper of Tropical Agriculture (Farming) and Applied Botany, 1, 359-361.

[25]   Ducousso, M., Ba, A.M. and Thoen, D. (2002) Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Associated with Native and Planted Tree Species in West Africa: A Potential Source of Edible Mushrooms. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques, 1, 51-63.

[26]   Tuno, N. (2001) Mushroom Utilization by the Majangir, an Ethiopian Tribe. The Mycologist, 15, 78-79.

[27]   Pegler, D.N. (1977) A Preliminary Agaric Flora of East Africa. Kew Bulletin Additional Series, 6, 15-571.

[28]   Bouriquet, G. (1970) The Main Mushrooms of Madagascar. Malgache Land, 7, 10-37.

[29]   Williamson, J. (1973) Preliminary List of Some Fungi of Malawi. The Society of Malawi Journal, 26, 15-27.

[30]   Chipompha, N.W.S. (1985) Some Mushrooms of Malawi. In: Forestry Research Record, Vol. 63, Forest Research Institute of Malawi Government Printer, Malawi.

[31]   Morris, B. (1987) Common Mushrooms of Malawi. Lubrecht & Cramer Ltd., Oslo.

[32]   Morris, B. (1990) An Annotated Check-List of the Macrofungi of Malawi. Kirkia, 13, 323-364.

[33]   Ryvarden, L., Piearce, G.D and Masuke, A.J. (1994) An Introduction to the Larger Fungi of South Central Africa, Baobab Books, Harare.

[34]   Wilson, K., Cammack, D. and Shumba, F. (1989) Food Provisioning amongst Mozambican Refugees in Malawi. A Study of Aid, Livelihood and Development. A Report Prepared for the World Food Programme. Oxford University, Oxford.

[35]   Uaciquete, A., Dai, M.D.L. and Motta, H. (1996) Distribution, Economic Value and Sustainable Use of Edible Mushroom in Mozambique. Grupo de Trabalho Ambiental, Maputo.

[36]   Oso, B.A., (1975) Mushrooms and the Yoruba People of Nigeria. Mycologia, 67, 311-319.

[37]   Katende, A.B., Segawa, P. and Birnie, A. (1999) Wild Food Plants and Mushrooms of Uganda. Regional Land Management Unit, Nairobi.

[38]   Parent, G. and Thoen, D. (1977) Food Value of Edible Mushrooms from Upper Shaba Region. Economic Botany, 31, 436-445.

[39]   Malaisse, F. (1997) Feed in African Clear Forest. Ecological and Nutritional Approach. The Agronomic Press, Gembloux; Technical Center for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation, Wageningen.

[40]   Roulon-Doko, P. (1998) Hunting, Gathering and Fanning of the Gbaya People of Central Africa. L’Harmattan, Paris.

[41]   Thoen, D. and Ba, A.M. (1989) Ectomycorrhizas and Putative Ectomycorrhizal Fungi of Afzelia africana and Uapaca senegalensis in Southern Senegal. New Phytologist, 113, 549-559.

[42]   Boa, E.R., Ngulube, M., Meke, G. and Munthali, C. (2000) First Regional Workshop on Sustainable Use of Forest Products: Miombo Wild Edible Fungi. Forest Research Institute of Malawi and CABI Bioscience, Malawi.

[43]   Piearce, G.D. and Sharp, C. (2000) Vernaculaire Names of Zimbabwean Fungi: A Preliminary Checklist. Kirkia, 17, 219-228.

[44]   Eyi Ndong, H.C. (2012) Variation of the Traditional Mycological Knowledge of the Populations of the North of the Gabon. ScienceSud, No. 4-5, CENAREST, Libreville, 1-11.