JSSM  Vol.4 No.2 , June 2011
Applying Zipf’s Power Law Over Population Density and Growth as Network Deployment Indicator
Abstract: Population distribution analysis contains useful information regarding decision making of networks’ deployment. However, both the public and the private sector should decide the development of networks based on qualitative and quantitative criteria, such as the application of power laws. In this work, one of the most widely used power laws ap-plied in demographics, the Zipf’s law, is tested over urban cities in Greece. Apart from the examination of Zipf’s law validation over population, this study provides further results according the distribution of population density as far as an analysis based on population differentiations in the last decades. According to the results, it is proved that the con-sidered sample plays a crucial role to the final conclusions, since the acceptance or the rejection of the law depends on it. Moreover, important information regarding the deployment of networks are revealed and discussed.
Cite this paper: nullV. Kyriakidou, C. Michalakelis and D. Varoutas, "Applying Zipf’s Power Law Over Population Density and Growth as Network Deployment Indicator," Journal of Service Science and Management, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2011, pp. 132-140. doi: 10.4236/jssm.2011.42017.

[1]   European Commission, “e-Europe 2005, An Information Soci-ety for all,” European Information Society, 2003.

[2]   European Commission, “i2010 - A European In-formation Society for growth and employment,” European Information Society, 2005.

[3]   European Commission, “Digi-tal Agenda,” European Information Society, 2010.

[4]   K. Pigg and L. Crank, “Do Information and Communication Technologies Promote Rural Economic Development?” Jour-nal of the Community Development Society, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2005, pp. 65-76. doi:10.1080/15575330509489872

[5]   Y. M. Ioannides and H. G. Overman, “Zipf’s Law for Cities: An Empirical Examina-tion,” Regional Science and Urban Economics, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2003, pp. 127-137. doi:10.1016/S0166-0462(02)00006-6

[6]   D. Black and J. V. Henderson, “Urban evolution in the USA,” Journal of Eco-nomic Geography, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 343-373, 2003. doi:10.1093/jeg/lbg017

[7]   J. V. Henderson, “Cities and Development,” Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 50, No. 1, 2010, pp. 515-540. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9787.2009.00636.x

[8]   G. K. Zipf, “Hu-man Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort,” Addi-son-Wesley Press, Cambridge, 1949.

[9]   K. Krugman, “De-velopment, Geography, and Economic Theory,” MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995.

[10]   L. K. Ha, E. I. Sicilia-Garcia, J. Ming and F. J. Smith, “Extension of Zipf’s law to words and phrases,” Coling 2002: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Taipei, 26-30 Au-gust 2002 pp. 315-20.

[11]   L. A. Adamic and B. A. Huber-man, “Zipf’s law and the internet,” Glottometrics, Vol. 3, 2002, pp. 143-50.

[12]   T. Lu, M. C. Costello, P. Groucher, R. H?sler, G. Deuschl and S. Schreiber, “Can Zipf’s law be adapted to normalize microarrays?” BMC Bioinformatics, Vol. 6, 2005, p. 37. doi:10.1186/1471-2105-6-37

[13]   G. Kosmopoulou, N. Buttry, J. Johnson, and K. A., “Suburbanization and the rank-size rule,” Applied Economics Letters, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2007, pp. 1-4. doi:10.1080/13504850500425675

[14]   V. Nitsch, “Zipf zipped,” Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 57, No. 1, 2005, pp. 86-100. doi:10.1016/j.jue.2004.09.002

[15]   K. T. Soo, “Zipf’s Law for cities: a cross-country investigation,” Regional Science and Urban Economics, Vol. 35, No. 3, 2005, pp. 239-263. doi:10.1016/j.regsciurbeco.2004.04.004

[16]   X. Gabaix and Y. M. Ioannides, “The Evolution of City Size Distributions,” Vol. 4, J. V. Henderson and J. F. Thisse, Eds.: Handbook of Re-gional and Urban Economics, 2004, pp. 2341-2378.

[17]   Y. Sato and K. Yamamoto, “Population concentration, Urbaniza-tion, and Demographic transition,” Journal of Urban Econom-ics, Vol. 58, No. 1, 2005, pp. 45-61. doi:10.1016/j.jue.2005.01.004

[18]   R. E. Lucas, “On the me-chanics of economic development,” Journal of Monetary Eco-nomics, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1988, pp. 3-42. doi:10.1016/0304-3932(88)90168-7

[19]   K. Head and T. Mayer, “The empirics of agglomeration and trade,” Cities and Geography: North-Holland, Amsterdam, 2004.

[20]   M. B. Cunningham, J. P. Alexander and A. Candeub, “Network growth: Theory and evidence from the mobile telephone indus-try,” Information Economics and Policy, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2010, pp. 91-102. doi:10.1016/j.infoecopol.2009.11.005

[21]   G. M. Moutafides and A. A. Economides, “Demand for broadband access in Greece,” Telematics and Informatics, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2011, pp. 125-141. doi:10.1016/j.tele.2010.10.003

[22]   F. Guérin-Pace, “Rank-Size Distribution and the Process of Urban Growth,” Urban Studies, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1995, pp. 551-562. doi:10.1080/00420989550012960

[23]   Hellenic Statistical Authority (El.Stat), 2010,

[24]   B. Gompertz, “On the nature of the function expressing of the law of human mortality,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Vol. 36, 1825, pp. 513–585.

[25]   C. Urzúa, “A simple and efficient test for Zipf’s law,” Economics Letters, Vol. 66, 2000, pp. 257-260.

[26]   R. Kali, “The city as a giant component: A ran-dom graph approach to Zipf’s law,” Applied Economics Letters, Vol. 10, No. 11, 2003, pp. 717-720. doi:10.1080/1350485032000139006

[27]   M. Ripeanu, I. Foster and A. Iamnitchi, “Mapping the Gnutella Network: Properties of Large-Scale Peer-to-Peer Systems and Implications for Sys-tem Design,” IEEE Internet Computing Journal special issue on peer-to-peer networking, Vol. 6, 2002, pp. 50-57.

[28]   Internet Computing Journal special issue on peer-to-peer networking, Vol. 6, 2002, pp. 50-57.

[29]   Systems and Implications for System Design, IEEE Internet Computing Journal special issue on peer-to-peer networking, Vol. 6, 2002, pp. 50-57.

[30]   U. Kamecke, “Testing the Rank-Size Rule Hypothesis with an Efficient Estimator,” Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1990, pp. 222-231. doi:10.1016/0094-1190(90)90016-G

[31]   T. K. Rosen and M. Resnick, “The Size Distribution of Cities: An Examination of the Pareto Law and Primacy,” Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1980, pp. 165-186. doi:10.1016/0094-1190(80)90043-1

[32]   D. Cuberes, “Se-quential city growth: Empirical evidence,” Journal of Urban Economics, vol. 69, No. 2, 2011, pp. 229-239. doi:10.1016/j.jue.2010.10.002

[33]   L. Ellis and D. Andrews, “City Sizes, Housing Costs, and Wealth,” Research Discussion Paper, Economic Research Department: Reserve Bank of Aus-tralia, 2001.

[34]   Y. Fujiwara, C. Di Guilmi, H. Aoyama, M. Gallegati and W. Souma, “Do Pareto-Zipf and Gibrat Laws Hold True? An Analysis with European Firms,” Physica A, Vol. 335, No. 1-2, pp. 197-216, 2004. doi:10.1016/j.physa.2003.12.015