JEP  Vol.5 No.17 , December 2014
Floristic Composition, Diversity and Stand Structure of Tropical Forests in Popa Mountain Park
Abstract: Safeguarding biodiversity is an important component of the REDD+ scheme of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Information on tree species and their distribution is therefore needed for successful implementation of forestry carbon projects. Forest inventory data were collected in four natural forests located in Popa Mountain Park, Myanmar. Based on the data from 4-ha sample plots, average stem density ranges from 1293 trees ha-1 in dry dipterocarp forest to 804 tree ha-1 in dry evergreen forest. According to the Jackknife estimator for species richness (trees with DBH ≥ 5 cm), the highest number of species was recorded in dry mixed deciduous forest—74 species ha-1, and the lowest number of species recorded in dry forest—40 species ha-1. Dry mixed deciduous forest occupied the highest value on the Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson diversity index while the lowest was in dry forest, indicating that dry mixed deciduous forest is the most complex whereas dry forest is the simplest community. Not only does this study provide useful information on the current status of vegetation type but the information is important for designing forestry management systems that could result in biodiversity conservation and carbon emission reductions.
Cite this paper: Aye, Y. , Pampasit, S. , Umponstira, C. , Thanacharoenchanaphas, K. , Sasaki, N. (2014) Floristic Composition, Diversity and Stand Structure of Tropical Forests in Popa Mountain Park. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5, 1588-1602. doi: 10.4236/jep.2014.517150.

[1]   FAO (2010) Forests and Climate Change in the Asia-Pacific Region. Italy, 108.

[2]   Farhadi, P., Soosani, J., Alijani, V. and Adeli, K. (2013) Comparison of the Quercus brantii and Pyrus glabra Boiss Species Structure in Zagros Forests (Case Study: Ghalehgol Forest, Khoramabad City, Iran). International Journal of Biological Sciences, 3, 210-217.

[3]   Swaine, M.D. and Hall, J.B. (1983) Early Succession on Cleared Forest Land in Ghana. Journal of Ecology, 71, 601-627.

[4]   Singh, J.S., Sahu, P.K. and Sagar, R. (2008) Tropical Forest Structure and Diversity in Relation to Altitude and Disturbance in a Biosphere Reserve in Central India. Applied Vegetation Science, 11, 461-470.

[5]   FAO (2009) State of World’s Forests. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), Italy, 168.

[6]   Taylor, D., Hamilton, A.C., Lewis, S.L. and Nantale, G. (2008) Thirty-Eight Years of Change in a Tropical Forest: Plot Data from Mpanga Forest Reserve, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology, 46, 655-667.

[7]   Thapa, S. and Chapman, D.S. (2010) Impacts of Resource Extraction on Forest Structure and Diversity in Bardia National Park, Nepal. Forest Ecology and Management, 259, 641-649.

[8]   FAO (2010) Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010. Main Report, Food and Agriculture Organization, Italy, 340.

[9]   Thomas, C.D., Cameron, A., Green, R.E., Bakkenes, M., Beaumont, L.J., Collingham, Y.C., Erasmus, B.F.N., De Siqueira, M.F., Grainger, A., Hannah, L., Hughes, L., Huntley, B., Van Jaarsveld, A.S., Midgley, G.F., Miles, L., Ortega-Huerta, M.A., Peterson, A.T., Phillips, O.L. and Williams, S.E. (2004) Extinction Risk from Climate Change. Nature, 427, 145-148.

[10]   Sagar, R., Raghubanshi, A. and Singh, J. (2003) Tree Species Composition, Dispersion and Diversity along a Disturbance Gradient in a Dry Tropical Forest Region of India. Forest Ecology and Management, 186, 61-71.

[11]   FAO (2003) Tropical Secondary Forest Management in Africa: Reality and Perspectives. In: Workshop on Tropical Secondary Forest Management in Africa, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.

[12]   Bello, A.G., Isah, A.D. and Ahmad, B. (2013) Tree Species Diversity Analysis of Kogo Forest Reserve in North-Western Nigeria. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences, 3, 189-196.

[13]   Huang, W., Pohjonen, V., Johansson, S., Nashanda, M., Katigula, M.I. and Luukkanen, O. (2003) Species Diversity, Forest Structure and Species Composition in Tanzanian Tropical Forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 173, 11-24.

[14]   Aung, M., Khaing Swe, K., Oo, T., Kyaw Moe, K., Leimgruber, P., Allendorf, T., Duncan, C. and Wemmer, C. (2004) The Environmental History of Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary, a Protected Area in Myanmar (Burma). Journal of Environmental Management, 72, 205-216.

[15]   Allendorf, T., Swe, K.K., Oo, T., Htut, Y.E., Aung, M., Allendorf, K., Hayek, L., Leimgruber, P. and Wemmer, C. (2006) Community Attitudes toward Three Protected Areas in Upper Myanmar (Burma). Environmental Conservation, 33, 344-352.

[16]   Andam, K.S., Ferraro, P.J., Pfaff, A., Sanchez-Azofeifa, G.A. and Robalino, J. (2008) Measuring the Effectiveness of Protected Area Networks in Reducing Deforestation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 16089-16094.

[17]   Kyi, Y.Y. (1992) Preliminary Report on Vegetation and Flora of Mount Popa. Yezin, Myanmar, 1-4.

[18]   Kyi, Y.Y. and Moe, A.Z. (1997) Plant Biodiversity of Mount Popa (Part I). Yezin, Myanmar, 21.

[19]   Suratman, M.N. (2012) Tree Species Diversity and Forest Stand Structure of Pahang National Park, Malaysia. In: Lameed, G.A., Ed., Biodiversity Enrichment in a Diverse World, 473-492.

[20]   Htun, N.Z., Mizoue, N. and Yoshida, S. (2011) Classifying Tropical Deciduous Vegetation: A Comparison of Multiple Approaches in Popa Mountain Park, Myanmar. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 32, 8935-8948.

[21]   FD (1981) Proposed Popa Mountain Park Master Plan 1982-1984. UNDP/FAO, Forest Department, Nature Conservation National Park Project, Vol. 43, FD (Forest Department): BUR/80/006, Rangoon.

[22]   Htun, N.Z., Mizoue, N., Kajisa, T. and Yoshida, S. (2010) Deforestation and Forest Degradation as Measures of Popa Mountain Park (Myanmar) Effectiveness. Environmental Conservation, 36, 218-224.

[23]   Htun, N.Z., Mizoue, N. and Yoshida, S. (2013) Changes in Determinants of Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Popa Mountain Park, Central Myanmar. Environmental Management, 51, 423-434.

[24]   Kress, W.J., Defilipps, R.A., Farr, E. and Kyi, Y.Y. (2003) A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar.

[25]   Heltshe, J.F. and Forrester, N.E. (1983) Estimating Species Richness Using the Jackknife. Biometrics, 39, 1-11.

[26]   Simpson, E.H. (1949) Measurement of Diversity. Nature, 163, 688.

[27]   Shannon, C.E. and Weaver, W.J. (1949) The Mathematical Theory of Communication. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 117 p.

[28]   Magurran, A.E. (1988) Ecological Diversity and Its Measurement. Croom Helm, London, 178.

[29]   Curits, J.T. and McIntosh, R.P. (1951) An Upland Forest Continuum in the Prairie-Forest Border Region on Wisconsin. Ecology, 32, 476-496.

[30]   De, A. (2007) Patterns of Plant Species Diversity in the Forest Corridor of Rajaji-Corbett National Parks, Uttaranchal, India. Current Science, 92, 90-93.

[31]   Phillips, O.L. and Gentry, A.H. (1994) Increasing Turnover through Time in Tropical Forests. Science, 263, 954-958.

[32]   Gillespie, T.W., Keppel, G., Pau, S., Price, J.P., Jaffré, T. and O’Neill, K. (2013) Scaling Species Richness and Endemism of Tropical Dry Forests on Oceanic Islands. Diversity and Distributions, 19, 896-906.

[33]   Homeier, J., Breckle, S., Sven, G., Rollenbeck, R.T. and Leuschner, C. (2010) Tree Diversity, Forest Structure and Productivity along Altitudinal and Topographical Gradients in a Species-Rich Ecuadorian Montane Rain Forest. Biotropica, 42, 140-148.

[34]   Kitamura, S., Suzuki, S., Yumoto, T., Chuailua, P., Plongmai, K., Poonswad, P., Noma, N., Maruhashi, T. and Suckasam, C. (2005) A Botanical Inventory of a Tropical Seasonal Forest in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand: Implications for Fruit-Frugivore Interactions. Biodiversity & Conservation, 14, 1241-1261.

[35]   Lamprecht, H. (1989) Silviculture in the Tropics: Tropical Forest Ecosystems and Their Species-Possibilities and Methods for Their Long-Term Utilization. Deutsche Gesellschaft Fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Eschborn, 296.

[36]   Kessler, M., Keßler, P.J.A., Gradstein, S.R., Bach, K., Schmull, M. and Pitopang, R. (2005) Tree Diversity in Primary Forest and Different Land Use Systems in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversity & Conservation, 14, 547-560.

[37]   Bhat, P.R. and Kaveriappa, K.M. (2009) Ecological Studies on Myristica Swamp Forests of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. Tropical Ecology, 50, 329-337.

[38]   Attua, E.M. and Pabi, O. (2013) Tree Species Composition, Richness and Diversity in the Northern Forest-Savanna Ecotone of Ghana. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 69, 5437-5448.

[39]   Kumar, J.I.N., Kumar, R.N., Bhoi, R.K. and Sajish, P.R. (2010) Tree Species Diversity and Soil Nutrient Status in Three Sites of Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest of Western India. Tropical Ecology, 51, 273-279.

[40]   Tian, C.C., Jiang, X.L., Peng, H., Fan, P.F. and Zhou, S.B. (2007) Tree Species Diversity and Structure Characters in the Habitats of Black-Crested Gibbons (Nomascus concolor). Acta Ecologica Sinica, 27, 4002-4010.

[41]   Rubin, B.D., Manion, P.D. and Faber-Langendoen, D. (2006) Diameter Distributions and Structural Sustainability in Forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 222, 427-438.

[42]   Cain, S.A. and de Oliviera Castro, G.M. (1959) Manual of Vegetative Analysis. 325 p.