Back
 OJVM  Vol.4 No.12 , December 2014
Blood and Gastrointestinal Parasites of Chickens and Turkeys Reared in the Tropical Rainforest Zone of Southeastern Nigeria
Abstract: The blood and gastrointestinal (GI) parasites of chickens and turkeys reared in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria were studied. Out of 5600 birds, 5040 (90%) were chickens and 560 (10%) were turkeys. Of these birds, 672 (12%) were infected with blood parasites, of which 448 (8.9%) were chickens and 224 (40%) turkeys. The blood parasites found in chickens were Leucocytozoon sp., with a prevalence rate of 448 (8.9%) occurring in both male and female chickens examined. Plasmodium sp. was found in the turkeys and it gave a prevalence of 224 (40%). 1792 (32%) of the birds were infected with faecal parasites, out of which, 1456 (28.9%) were chickens and 336 (60%) turkeys examined. Ascaridia sp. infected 1232 (24.4%) of the chickens and 336 (60%) of the turkeys were examined. The only cestode observed was Raillietina spp., which infected 224 (4.4%) of the chickens, but none in the turkeys. Generally, low blood and faecal infections were observed in the chickens, while infections in the turkeys were slightly higher.
Cite this paper: Opara, M. , Osowa, D. and Maxwell, J. (2014) Blood and Gastrointestinal Parasites of Chickens and Turkeys Reared in the Tropical Rainforest Zone of Southeastern Nigeria. Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 4, 308-313. doi: 10.4236/ojvm.2014.412037.
References

[1]   Nnadi, P.A. and George, S.O. (2010) A Cross-Sectional Survey on Parasites of Chickens in Selected Villages in the Subhumid Zones of South-Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Parasitological Research, 2010, Article ID: 141824.

[2]   Soulsby, E.J.L. (1982) Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animal. 7th Edition, Bailliare Tindall, East Sussex.

[3]   Permin, A. and Hanson, J.W. (1998) Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Control of Poultry Parasites. FAO Animal Health Manuals 4 Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation.

[4]   Rod, C., Tom, I. and Jeromie, M. (2008) The Responsible Use of Health Management Products for Poultry Production. National Library of Canada Cataloguing.

[5]   FAO (2004) Small Scale Poultry Production in Nigeria. http://www.fao.org/../y5169e07

[6]   Ekpo, U.F., Ogbooye, A.A., Olumoye, A.S. and Takeet, M. (2010) A Preliminary Survey on the Parasites of Free Range Chickens in Abeokuta, Ogun State Nigeria. Journal of National Engineering Technology, 2, 123-130.

[7]   MAFF (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food) (1986) Manual of Veterinary Parasitological Laboratory Techniques, ADAS, HMSO, UK.

[8]   Urguhart, G.M., Armour, J., Duncan, I.J., Dunn, A.M. and Jennings, F.W. (1996) Veterinary Parasitology. In: Urguhart, G.M., Armour, J., Duncan, I.J., Dunna, A.M. and Jennings, F.W., Eds., 2nd Edition, Blackwell Science, London, 67-137.

[9]   Okereke, R.E. (2010) Occurrence of Blood Parasites in Local and Exotic Chickens Slaughtered in Owerri, Imo State. B-Agri-Technology Project Report Submitted to the Department of Animal Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri.

[10]   Permin, A., Esmann, J.B., Hoj, C.H., Hove, J. and Mukara, T.S. (2002) Ecto-Endo and Haemoparasite in Free-Range Chickens in Goromonzi District in Zimbabwe. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 54, 213-224.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5877(02)00024-7

[11]   Poulsen, J., Permin, A., Hindsho, O., Yelifari, L., Nansen, P. and Bloch, P. (2000) Prevalence and Distribution of Gastrointestinal Helminthes and Haemoparasites in Young Scavenging Chickens in Upper Eastern Region of Ghana West Africa. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 45, 237-245.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5877(00)00125-2

[12]   Njuga, G.R. (2000) Ecto- and Haemoparasites of Chickens in Malawi with Emphasis on the Effects of the Chicken Louse, Menacanthus cornutus. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Malawi, Lilongwe.

[13]   ValkiĆ«nas, G., Sehgal, R.N., Iezhova, T.A. and Smith, T.B. (2005) Further Observations on the Blood Parasites of Birds in Uganda. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 41, 580-587.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-41.3.580

[14]   Yoriyo, K.P., Fabiyi, J.P., Adams, S.U. and Panda, S.M. (2005) Intensities of Helminth Parasites of Free Ranging Chickens in Bauchi and Environs. Yankari Journal, 2, 135-137.

[15]   Permin, A., Magwisha, H., Kassuku, A.A., Nansen, P., Bisgaard, M., Frandsen, F. and Gibbsons, L. (1997) A Cross-Sectional Study of Helminthes in Rural Scavenging Poultry in Tanzania in Relation to Season and Climate. Journal of Helminthology, 71, 233-240.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X00015972

[16]   Luka, S.A. and Ndam, I.S. (2007) Grastrointestinal Parasites of Domestic Chickens, Gallus domestic (Linnaeaus 1758) in Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria. Science World Journal, 2, 27-29.

[17]   Opara, M.N. and Nwokedi, C.C. (2011) Occurrence of Haemoparasites among Small Ruminants Reared under Traditional Husbandry System in Owerri, Southeast Nigeria. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 59, 393-398.

[18]   Fabiyi, J.P. (1972) Incidence of Helminth Parasites of Domestic Fowls in Vom Area of Benue-Plateau State, Nigeria. Bulletin of Epizootic Disease of Africa, 20, 229-243.

[19]   Igbokwe, I.O., Hassan, S.U., Faive, Z.T., Iliya, Y., Dagare, M.J., Rabo, J.S., Mohammed, A. and Igbokwe, N.A. (2008) Effect of Plasmodium Species Infections on Packed Cell Volume of Domestic Chickens and Helmeted Guinea Fowls, North Eastern Nigeria. Animal Research International, 5, 892-895.

[20]   Schmidt, G.D. (1986) Handbook of Tapeworm Identification. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 24.

[21]   Tadelle, D. (1996) Studies on Village Poultry Production System in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. M.Sc. Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.

[22]   Gicik, Y. and Arshan, M.O. (1999) Blood Parasites of Wild Pigeons in Ankara District. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 25, 169-172.

[23]   Maizels, R.M., Bundy, D.A.P., Selkirk, M.E., Smith, D.F. and Anderson, R.M. (1993) Immunological Modulation and Evasion by Helminth Parasites in Human Population. M.Sc. Seminar, Cellular Parasitology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

[24]   Smith, D.B. and van Hautert, M.J.F. (1984) Health Aspects of Intensive Management of West African Dwarf Goats in the Humid forest Zone. Proceeding of the National Conference on Diseases of Ruminants, Vom, 3-6 October 1984, 8-13.

 
 
Top