Back
 LCE  Vol.5 No.4 , December 2014
Cumulative Carbon Fluxes Due to Selective Logging in Southeast Asia
Abstract: Selective logging creates a large amount of wood residues in forests in addition to producing a small amount of sawnwood for use as source of construction materials. Although accounting for carbon fluxes in harvested wood products (HWPs) becomes necessary in the fight against climate change, previous studies focused mainly on carbon fluxes in HWPs in temperate and boreal forests. This report attempts to analyze carbon fluxes in various wood components created by selective logging in production forest in Southeast Asia during a hypothetical period of carbon project implementation between 2015 and 2050 under conventional (CVL) and reduced-impact logging (RIL). Study results suggest that CVL produced about 146.6 (±5.4) million m3 annually. Logging created annual carbon fluxes of about 0.23, 0.23, 0.20, 0.69, and 0.15 MgC ha-1·year-1 in sawnwood, wood wastes at sawmills (SWW), wood product wastes due to logging damages remained in the forests (WPW), branches and top logs (BRA), and belowground dead root (BLD), respectively. Cumulative carbon fluxes were estimated at 281.0, 506.6, and 87.4 TgC year-1 in sawnwood, onsite (WPW, BRA, BLD), and offsite (SWW) pools, respectively. Except in SW, cumulative carbon fluxes in onsite and offsite pools showed a decline trend in about 10 years after logging. Switching from CVL to RIL could increase fluxes in sawnwood 60% higher than that under CVL, while reducing fluxes in short-lived onsite and offsite wood residues. Not only RIL can increase carbon fluxes in sawnwood, it can also increase production of sawnwood and retain more carbon in standing forests.
Cite this paper: Khun, V. , Sasaki, N. , (2014) Cumulative Carbon Fluxes Due to Selective Logging in Southeast Asia. Low Carbon Economy, 5, 180-191. doi: 10.4236/lce.2014.54018.
References

[1]   Pan, Y., Birdsey, R.A., Fang, J., Houghton, R., et al. (2011) A Large and Persistent Carbon Sink in the World’s Forests. Science, 333, 988-993. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1201609

[2]   Baccini, A., Goetz, S.J., Walker, W.S., Laporte, N.T., Sun, M., Sulla-Menashe, D., Hackler, J., Beck, P.S.A., Dubayah, R., Friedl, M.A., Samanta, S. and Houghton, R.A. (2012) Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Tropical Deforestation Improved by Carbon-Density Maps. Nature Climate Change, 2, 182-186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1354

[3]   Stockmann, K., Anderson, N., Skog, K., Healey, S., Loeffler, D., Jones, G. and Morrison, J. (2012) Estimates of Carbon Stored in Harvested Wood Products from the United States Forest Service Northern Region, 1906-2010. Carbon Balance and Management, 7, 1-16.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-0680-7-1

[4]   Heath, L.S., Birdsey, R.A., Row, C. and Plantinga, A.J. (1996) Carbon Pools and Flux in US Forest Products. In: Apps, M.J. and Price, D.T., Eds., Forest Ecosystems, Forest Management, and the Global Carbon Cycle, NATO ASI Series I: Global Environmental Changes, Vol. 40, Springer, Berlin, 271-278.

[5]   Dymond, C. (2012) Forest Carbon in North America: Annual Storage and Emissions from British Columbia’s Harvest, 1965-2065. Carbon Balance and Management, 7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-0680-7-8

[6]   Haripriya, G.S. (2002) A Framework for Assessing Carbon Flow in Indian Wood Products. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 3, 229-251.

[7]   Sist, P. and Ferreira, F.N. (2007) Sustainability of Reduced-Impact Logging in Eastern Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management, 243, 199-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.02.014

[8]   Putz, F.E., Zuidema, P.A., Pinard, M.A., Boot, R.G.A., Sayer, J.A., Sheil, D., Sist, P. and Vanclay, J.K. (2008) Improved Tropical Forest Management for Carbon Retention. PLoS Biology, 6, e166.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060166

[9]   Putz, F.E., Zuidema, P.A., Synnott, T., Pe?a-Claros, M., Pinard, M.A., Sheil, D., Vanclay, J.K., Sist, P., Gourlet-Fleury, S., Griscom, B., Palmer, J. and Zagt, R. (2012) Sustaining Conservation Values in Selectively Logged Tropical Forests: The Attained and the Attainable. Conservation Letters. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00242.x

[10]   Souza Jr., C.M. and Roberts, D. (2005) Mapping Forest Degradation in the Amazon Region with Ikonos Images. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 26, 425-429.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0143116031000101620

[11]   Asner, G.P., Broadbent, E.N., Oliveira, P.J.C., Keller, M., Knapp, D.E. and Silva, J.N. (2006) Condition and Fate of Logged Forests in the Brazilian Amazon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 12947-12950. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0604093103

[12]   Whiteman, A., Brown, C. and Bull, G. (1999) Forest Product Market Developments: The Outlook for Forest Product Markets to 2010 and the Implications for Improving Management of the Global Forest Estate. Working Paper: FAO/FPIRS/02 Prepared for the World Bank Forest Policy Implementation Review and Strategy. FAO, Rome, 141 p.

[13]   Sasaki, N., Kimsun, C. and Ty, S. (2012) Managing Production Forests for Timber Production and Carbon Emission Reductions under the REDD+ Scheme. Environmental Science & Policy, 23, 35-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2012.06.009

[14]   Sasaki, N. and Putz, F.E. (2009) Critical Need for New Definitions of Forest and Forest Degradation in Global Climate Change Agreements. Conservation Letters, 2, 226-232.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2009.00067.x

[15]   Khun, V. and Sasaki, N. (2014) Re-Assessment of Forest Carbon Balance in Southeast Asia: Policy Implications for REDD+. Low Carbon Economy, 5, 153-171. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/lce.2014.54016

[16]   Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2010) Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010. FAO Forestry Paper 163, FAO, Rome.

[17]   Kim Phat, N., Knorr, W. and Kim, S. (2004) Appropriate Measures for Conservation of Terrestrial Carbon Stocks— Analysis of Trends of Forest Management in Southeast Asia. Forest Ecology Management, 191, 283-299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2003.12.019

[18]   Brown, S. (1997) Estimating Biomass and Biomass Change of Tropical Forests: A Primer. FAO Forestry Paper 134, FAO, Rome.

[19]   Aye, Y., Pampasit, S., Umponstira, C., Thanacharoenchanaphas, K. and Sasaki, N. (2014) Estimation of Carbon Emission Reductions by Managing Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest: Case Study in Popa Mountain Park. Low Carbon Economy, 5, 80-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/lce.2014.52009

[20]   Grier, C.C. (1978) A Tsuga heterophylla-Picea sitchensis Ecosystem of Coastal Oregon: Decomposition and Nutrient Balance of Fallen Logs. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 8, 198-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x78-031

[21]   Mori, S., Itoh, A., Nanami, S., Tan, S., Chong, L. and Yamakura, T. (2014) Effect of Wood Density and Water Permeability on Wood Decomposition Rates of 32 Bornean Rainforest Trees. Journal of Plant Ecology, 7, 356-363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpe/rtt041

[22]   Tobin, B., Black, K., McGurdy, L. and Nieuwenhuis, M. (2007) Estimates of Decay Rates of Components of Coarse Woody Debris in Thinned Sitka Spruce Forests. Forestry, 80, 455-469.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpm024

[23]   Chambers, J.Q., Higuchi, N., Schimel, J.P., Ferreira, L.V. and Melack, J.M. (2000) Decomposition and Carbon Cycling of Dead Trees in Tropical Forests of the Central Amazon. Oecologia, 122, 380-388. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004420050044

[24]   IPCC (2006) IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. In: Eggleston, H.S., Buendia, L., Miwa, K., Ngara, T. and Tanabe, K., Eds., The National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, IGES, Yokohama.

[25]   Asner, G.P., Knapp, D.E., Broadbent, E.N., Oliveira, P.J.C., Keller, M. and Silva, J.N.M. (2005) Selective Logging in the Brazilian Amazon. Science, 310, 480-482. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1118051

[26]   Blanc, L., Echard, M., Herault, B., Bonal, D., Marcon, E., Chave, J. and Baraloto, C. (2009) Dynamics of Above-Ground Carbon Stocks in a Selectively Logged Tropical Forest. Ecological Applications, 19, 1397-1404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/08-1572.1

[27]   Mazzei, L., Sist, P., Ruschel, A., Putz, F.E., Marco, P., Pena, W. and Ferreira, J.E.R. (2010) Above-Ground Biomass Dynamics after Reduced-Impact Logging in the Eastern Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management, 259, 367-373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.10.031

[28]   Zimmerman, B.L. and Kormos, C.F. (2012) Prospects for Sustainable Logging in Tropical Forests. Bioscience, 62, 479-487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/bio.2012.62.5.9

[29]   Waggener and Lane (1997) Pacific Rim Demand and Supply Situation, Trends and Prospects: Implications for Forest Products Trade in the Asia-Pacific Region. (Asia-Pacific Forestry Sector Outlook Study—Working Paper Series) APFSOS/WP/02, FAO, Rome.

[30]   FAO (2011) Southeast Asian Forests and Forestry to 2020. Subregional Report of the Second Asia-Pacific Forestry Sector Outlook Study, FAO’s RAP PUBLICATION 2010/20, Bangkok, 78 p.

[31]   Feldpausch, T.R., Jirka, S., Passos, C.A.M., Jasper, F. and Riha, S.J. (2005) When Big Trees Fall: Damage and Carbon Export by Reduced Impact Logging in Southern Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management, 219, 199-215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.09.003

[32]   Achard, F., Eva, H.D., Stibig, H.J., et al. (2002) Determination of Deforestation Rates of the World’s Humid Tropical Forests. Science, 297, 999-1002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1070656

[33]   Fearnside, P.M. and Laurance, W.F. (2003) Comment on “Determination of Deforestation Rates of the World’s Humid Tropical Forests”. Science, 299, 1015a. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1078714

[34]   Pelletier, J., Kirby, K.R. and Potvin, C. (2012) Significance of Carbon Stock Uncertainties on Emission Reductions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries. Forest Policy and Economics, 24, 3-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2010.05.005

[35]   Friedlingstein, P., Houghton, R.A., Marland, G., Hackler, J., Boden, T.A., Conway, T.J., et al. (2010) Update on CO2 Emissions. Nature Geoscience, 3, 811-812. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1022

 
 
Top