FNS  Vol.2 No.4 , June 2011
Lycopene Supplementation Attenuates Oxidative Stress Parameters in the Plasma of Humans with Cad after Intense Exercise
Abstract: To investigate the effects of moderate and intense exercise (ME,IE) and lycopene (L) supplementation on oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with CAD. Rehabilitation clinic.Thirty-two male volunteers with CAD (55.65 ? 2.27 years, 77.27 ? 3.95 kg, 171.9 ? 2.80 cm) were divided into four groups; ME-Placebo (n = 7), ME + L (n = 8), IE-Placebo (n = 8) and IE-L (n = 9). Blood samples (12 mL) were collected before supplementation (one cereal bars – 15 mg of syn-thetic lycopene) and exercise (45 min plus 15 min of stretching, 3/wk) and after five weeks of supplementation and 72 h after exercise. Nitrite/nitrate concentrations (NOx), lipoperoxidation (TBARS levels), protein carbonylation (PC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity were assessed in plasma. NOx decreased significantly in the ME-P, IE-P and ME-L groups at 72 h after exercise and increased in the IE-L 72 h after the last exercise session. The IE-L group demonstrated decreased TBARS at 72 h after the last exercise session. The level of PC increased only in EI-P at 72 h after the last exercise session, while only the EI-L group presented a reduction. SOD increased signifi-cantly in both placebo groups 72 h after the last exercise session and decreased in the ME-L group 72 h after in rela-tion to placebo groups. CAT increased in ME-P, IE-P and IE-L groups only at 72 h after the last exercise session. The lycopene supplementation attenuates some markers of oxidative stress associated with IE Lycopene also had dissimilar effects on some markers of oxidative stress in subjects undertaking ME versus IE.
Cite this paper: nullM. Araujo, F. Soares, M. Ronsani, L. Rocha, L. Vieira, L. Silva, T. Carvalho, M. Benetti and R. Pinho, "Lycopene Supplementation Attenuates Oxidative Stress Parameters in the Plasma of Humans with Cad after Intense Exercise," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2011, pp. 241-248. doi: 10.4236/fns.2011.24034.

[1]   U. Singh and I. Jialal, “Oxidative Stress and Atherosclerosis,” Pathophysiology, Vol. 13, No. 3, 2006, pp. 129-142. doi:10.1016/j.pathophys.2006.05.002

[2]   N. R. Madamanchi, A. Vendrov and M. S. Runge, “Oxidative Stress and Vascular Disease,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2005, pp. 29-38.

[3]   C. Antoniades, D. Tousoulis, C. Tentolouris, P. Toutouzas and C. Stefanadis, “Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Vitamins, and Atherosclerosis,” Herz, Vol. 28, No. 7, 2003, pp. 628-638. doi:10.1007/s00059-003-2417-8

[4]   H. Cai and D. G. Harrison, “Endothelial Dysfunction in Cardiovascular Diseases; the Role of Oxidative Stress,” Circulation Research, Vol. 87, No. 10, 2000, pp. 840-844.

[5]   H. D. Sesso, R. S. Paffenbarger Jr. and I. M. Lee, “Physical Activity and Coronary Heart Disease in Men: The Harvard Alumni Health Study,” Circulation, Vol. 102, 2000, pp. 975-980.

[6]   S. A. Marsh and J. S. Coombes, “Exercise and the Endothelial Cell,” International Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 99, No. 2, 2005, pp. 165-169. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2004.02.005

[7]   F. Farsidfar, E. Kasikcioglu, H. Oflaz, D. Kasikcioglu, M. Meric and S. Umman, “Effects of Different Intensities of Acute Exercise on Flow-Mediated Dilatation in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease,” International Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 124, No. 3, 2008, pp. 372-374. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2006.11.243

[8]   M. C. Gomez-Cabrera, E. Domenech, L. L. Ji and J. VI?a, “Exercise as an Antioxidant: It Up-Regulates Important Enzymes for Cell Adaptations to Exercise,” SCI Sports, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2006, pp. 85-89.

[9]   C. Goto, Y. Higashi, M. Kimura, K. Noma, K. Hara, K. Nagawa, M. Kawamura, K. Chayana, M. Yoshizumi and I. I. Nara, “Effect of Different Intensities of Exercise on Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation in Humans: Role of Endothelium-Dependent Nitric Oxide and Oxidative Stress,” Circulation, Vol. 108, No. 5, 2003, pp. 530-535. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000080893.55729.28

[10]   M. Benetti, H. Cascaes and T. Carvalho, “The Impact of Different Aerobic Exercise Intensity on Endothelial Function in Patients Post Myocardial Infarction,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol. 49, 2007, p. 30.

[11]   U. Wisl?ff , A. St?ylen, J. P. Loennechen, M. Bruvold, O. Rognmo, P. M. Haram, A. E. Tj?nna, J. Helgerud, S. A. Sl?rdahl, S. J. Lee , V. Videm, A. Bye, G. L. Smith, S. M. Najjar, O. Ellingsen and T. Skjaerpe, “Superior Cardiovascular Effect of Aerobic Interval Training Versus Moderate Continuous Training in Heart Failure Patients,” Circulation, Vol. 115, No. 24, 2007, pp. 3086-3094.

[12]   P. M. Clarkson and H. S. Thompson, “Antioxidants: What Role do They Play in Physical Activity and Health?” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, No. 3, 2000, pp. 637-646.

[13]   T. Rissanen, S. Voutilainen, K. Nyyssonen and J. T. Salonen, “Lycopene, Atherosclerosis, and Coronary Heart Disease,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, Vol. 227, No. 10, 2002, pp. 900-907.

[14]   A. Blum, M. Monir, I. Wirsansky and S. Ben-Arzi, “The Beneficial Effects of Tomatoes,” European Journal of Internal Medicine, Vol. 16, No. 6, 2005, pp. 402-404. doi:10.1016/j.ejim.2005.02.017

[15]   S. Agarwal and A. V. Rao, “Tomato Lycopene and Its Role in Human Health and Chronic Diseases,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, Vol. 19, No. 6, 2000, pp. 163-166.

[16]   J. Gianetti, R. Pedrinelli, R. Petrucci, G. Lazzerini, M. De Caterina, G. Bellomo and R. De Caterina, “Inverse Association between Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and the Antioxidant Lycopene in Atherosclerosis,” American Heart Journal, Vol. 143, No. 3, 2002, pp. 467-474. doi:10.1067/mhj.2002.120776

[17]   D. K. Lee, R. N. Grantham, J. D. Mannion and A. L. Trachte, “Carotenoids Enhance Phosphorylation of Akt and Suppress Tissue Factor Activity in Human Endothelial Cells,” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Vol. 17, No. 11, 2006, pp. 780-786. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2006.01.006

[18]   K. Sahin, M. Onderci, N. Sahin, M. F. Gursu, F. Khachik and O. Kucuk, “Effects of Lycopene Supplementation on Antioxidant Status, Oxidative Stress, Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Heat-Stressed Japanese Quail,” Journal of Thermal Biology, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2006, pp. 307-312. doi:10.1016/j.jtherbio.2005.12.006

[19]   K. D. K. Ahuja, J. K. Pittaway and M. J. Ball, “Effects of Olive Oil and Tomato Lycopene Combination on Serum Lycopene, Lipid Profile, and Lipid Oxidation,” Nutrition, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2006, pp. 259-265. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2005.07.015

[20]   D. Heber and Q. Lu, “Overview of Mechanisms of Action of Lycopene,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, Vol. 227, No. 10, 2002, pp. 920-923.

[21]   C.-C. Liu, et al., “Lycopene Supplementation Attenuated Xanthine Oxidase and Myeloperoxidase Activities in Skeletal Muscle Tissues of Rats after Exhaustive Exercise,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 94, No. 4, 2005, pp. 595-601. doi:10.1079/BJN20051541

[22]   H. J. Montoye, H. C. G. Kemper, W. H. M. Saris and R. A. Washburn, “Measuring Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure,” Human Kinetics, Champaign, 1996.

[23]   A. V. Rao and H. Shen, “Effect of Low Dose Lycopene Intake on Lycopene Bioavailability and Oxidative Stress,” Nutrition Research, Vol. 22, No. 7, 2002, pp. 1125-1131. doi:10.1016/S0271-5317(02)00430-X

[24]   A. Maiorana, G. O'Driscoll, C. Cheetham, L. Dembo, K. Stanton, C. Goodman, R. Taylor and D. Green, “The Effect of Combined Aerobic and Resistance Training on Vascular Function in Type 2 Diabetes,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol. 38, No. 3, 2001, pp. 860-866. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(01)01439-5

[25]   C. A. Desouza, et al., “Regular Aerobic Exercise Prevents and Restores Age-Related Declines in Endothelium-De- pendent Vasodilation in Healthy Men,” Circulation, Vol. 102, No. 12, 2000, pp. 1351-1357.

[26]   R. J. Bloomer, A. H. Goldfarb, M. J. McKenzie, T. You and L. Nguyen, “Effects of Antioxidant Therapy in Women Exposed to Eccentric Exercise,” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, Vol. 14, No. 4,2004, pp. 377-388.

[27]   K. M. Miranda, M. G. Espey and D. A. Wink, “A Rapid, Simple Spectrophotometric Method for Simultaneous Detection of Nitrate and Nitrite,” Nitric Oxide, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2001, pp. 62-71. doi:10.1006/niox.2000.0319

[28]   H. H. Drapper and M. Hadley, “Malondialdehyde Determination as Index of Lipid Peroxidation,” Meth Enzymol, Vol. 186, No. 9, 1990, pp. 421-431. doi:10.1016/0076-6879(90)86135-I

[29]   R. L. Levine, D. Garland, C. N. Oliver, A. Amici, I. Climent, A. G. Lenz, B. W. Ahn, S. Shaltiel and S. E. R. Stadtman, “Determination of Carbonyl Content in Oxi- datively Modified Proteins,” Meth Enzymol, Vol. 186, 1990, pp. 464-478. doi:10.1016/0076-6879(90)86141-H

[30]   J. V. Bannister and L. Calabrese, “Assay for SOD,” Methods of Biochemical Analysis, Vol. 32, 1987, pp. 279-312. doi:10.1002/9780470110539.ch5

[31]   H. Aebi, “Catalase in Vitro,” Meth Enzymol, Vol. 105, 1984, pp. 121-126. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(84)05016-3

[32]   O. H. Lowry, N. G. Rosebough, A. L. Farr and R. J. Randall, “Protein Measurement with the Folin Phenol Reagent,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 193, 1951, pp. 265-275.

[33]   A. C. Kaliora, G. V. Z. Dedoussis and H. Schmidt, “Die- tary Antioxidants in Preventing Atherogenesis,” Atherosclerosis, Vol. 187, No. 1, 2006, pp. 1-17. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2005.11.001

[34]   S. Maeda, T. Otsuki, M. Iemitsu, M. Kamioka, J. Suga- wara, S. Kuno, R. Ajisaka and H. Tanaka, “Effects of Leg Resistance Training on Arterial Function in Older Men,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 40, No. 10, 2006, pp. 867-869. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2006.029538

[35]   J. Kals, P. Kampus, M. Kals, K. Zilmer, T. Kullisaar, R. Teesalu, A. Pulges and M. Zilmer, “Impact of Oxidative Stress on Arterial Elasticity in Patients with Atheros- clerosis,” American Journal of Hypertension, Vol. 19, No. 9, 2006, pp. 902-908.

[36]   A. Matsumoto, Y. Hirata, S. Momomura, H. Fujita, A. Yao, M. Sata and T. Serizawa, “Increased Nitric Oxide Production during Exercise,” Lancet, Vol. 343, No. 8901, 1994, pp. 849-850. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(94)92047-8

[37]   K. J. Davies, A. T. Quintanilha, G. A. Brooks and L. Packer, “Free Radicals and Tissue Damage Produced by Exercise,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol. 107, No. 4, 1982, pp. 1198-1205. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(82)80124-1

[38]   R. Bergholm, S. M?kimattila, M. Valkonen, M. L. Liu, S. Lahdenper?, M. R. Taskinen, A. Sovij?rvi, P. Malmberg and H. Yki-J?rvinen, “Intense Physical Training De- creases Circulating Antioxidants and Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilatation in Vivo,” Atherosclerosis, Vol. 145, No. 2, 1999, pp. 341-349. doi:10.1016/S0021-9150(99)00089-1

[39]   J. L. S. Quesada, H. Ortega, R. A. Payes, S. J. Serrat, S. F. Gonzalez, M. A. Lasuncion and L. J. Ordonez, “LDL from Aerobically-Trained Subjects Shows Higher Resistance to Oxidative Modification than LDL from Sedentary Subjects,” Atherosclerosis, Vol. 132, No. 2, 1997, pp. 207-213. doi:10.1016/S0021-9150(97)00108-1

[40]   K. S. C. Bose and B. K. Agrawal, “Effect of Lycopene from Cooked Tomatoes on Serum Antioxidant Enzymes, Lipid Peroxidation Rate and Lipid Profile in Coronary Heart Disease,” Singapore Medical Association, Vol. 48, No. 5, 2007, pp. 415-420.

[41]   F. Visioli, P. Riso, S. Grande, C. Galli and M. Porrini, “Protective Activity of Tomato Products on in Vivo Markers of Lipid Oxidation,” European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 42, No. 4, 2003, pp. 201-206. doi:10.1007/s00394-003-0415-5

[42]   K. Jacob, et al., “Influence of Lycopene and Vitamin C from Tomato Juice on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 99, No. 1, 2008, pp. 137-146. doi:10.1017/S0007114507791894

[43]   E. A. Moreira, R. L. Fagundes, D. W. Filho, D. Neves, F. Sell, F. Bellisle and E. Kupek, “Effects of Diet Energy Level and Tomato Powder Consumption on Antioxidant Status in Rats,” Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 24, No. 6, 2005, pp. 1038-1046. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2005.08.005

[44]   O. Aust, N. Ale-Agha, L. Zhang, H. Wollersen, H. Sies and W. Stahl, “ Lycopene Oxidation Product Enhances Gap Functional Communication,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 41, No. 10, 2003, pp. 1399-1407. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(03)00148-0

[45]   B. L. Lindshield, K. Canene-Adams and J. W. Erdman Jr., “Lycopenoids: Are Lycopene Metabolites Bioactive?” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Vol. 458, No. 2, 2006, pp. 136-140. doi:10.1016/

[46]   D. Gitenay, B. Lyan, M. Rambeau, A. Mazur and E. Rock, “Comparison of Lycopene and Tomato Effects on Bio- markers of Oxidative Stress in Vitamin E Deficient Rats,” European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 46, No. 8, 2007, pp. 468-475. doi:10.1007/s00394-007-0687-2

[47]   A. Salvi, P. A. Carrupt, J. P. Tillement and B. Testa, “Structural Damage to Proteins Caused by Free Radicals: Assessment, Protection by Antioxidants, and Influence of Protein Binding,” Biochemical Pharmacology, Vol. 61, No. 10, 2001, pp. 1237-1242. doi:10.1016/S0006-2952(01)00607-4

[48]   B. Halliwell and J. M. C. Gutteridge, “Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine,” University Press, Oxford, 2007.