FNS  Vol.5 No.22 , December 2014
Effect of Green Tea Consumption on Selected Metabolic Biomarkers in Asian Indian Women with Metabolic Syndrome
Abstract: Evidence for benefits of anti-oxidative power of polyphenols in cardiovascular diseases has been established. In the present study, effect of polyphenol rich green tea on selected metabolic biomarkers among Asian Indian women with metabolic syndrome in normal free living condition has been recorded. Thirty three Asian Indian women (>30 y) confirmed as having metabolic syndrome, were enrolled for the present study based on written informed consent. Subjects were asked to consume three cups of green tea daily for a period of four months. Regular telephonic contact and periodic visit to supply the tea were made to ensure compliance with the intervention and maintenance of lifestyle and dietary pattern, as followed before the experimental period. Parameters analyzed at baseline have been used as control data to eliminate individual variation. Double-blind analysis of selected metabolic markers was done at baseline, 2 months and 4 months of the intervention period. At four months, a significant reduction from baseline was observed in weight (2%), waist circumference (4.5%), blood sugar (4%), glycosylated hemoglobin (4%), total cholesterol (11%) and LDL cholesterol (13%) (p < 0.01). The effect of green tea consumption on BMI, fasting insulin, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL, C-reactive protein and homocysteine levels was either inconsistent or non significant. The present study showed that green tea consumption by free living subjects with metabolic syndrome resulted in significant improvements in some of the cardiovascular risk factors including visceral fat, blood sugar and cholesterol level.
Cite this paper: Ray, K. and Singhania, P. (2014) Effect of Green Tea Consumption on Selected Metabolic Biomarkers in Asian Indian Women with Metabolic Syndrome. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 2167-2176. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.522229.

[1]   Bhardwaj, P. and Khanna, D. (2013) Green Tea Catechins: Defensive Role in Cardiovascular Disorders. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, 11, 345-353.

[2]   Babu, P.V. and Liu, D. (2008) Green Tea Catechins and Cardiovascular Health: An Update. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 15, 1840-1850.

[3]   Rains, T.M., Agarwal, S. and Maki, K.C. (2011) Antiobesity Effects of Green Tea Catechins: A Mechanistic Review. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 22, 1-7.

[4]   Chen, T.S., Lui, C.K.F. and Smith, C.H. (1983) Folacin Content of Tea. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 82, 627-632.

[5]   Riddell, L.J., Chisholm, A., Williams, S., et al. (2000) Dietary Strategies for Lowering Homocysteine Concentrations. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71, 1448-1454.

[6]   Hodgson, J., Devine, A., Puddey, I.B., et al. (2006) Drinking Tea Is Associated with Lower Plasma Total Homocysteine in Older Women. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 15, 253-258

[7]   Alberti, K.G.M.M., Zimmet, P. and Shaw, J. (2006) Metabolic Syndrome—A New World-Wide Definition. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Diabetic Medicine, 23, 469-480.

[8]   Ikeda, I. (2008) Multifunctional Effects of Green Tea Catechins on Prevention of the Metabolic Syndrome. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 17, 273-274.

[9]   Zhen, X.-X., Xu, Y.-L., Li, S.-H., et al. (2011) Green Tea Intake Lowers Fasting Serum Total and LDL Cholesterol in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Randomized Controlled Trials. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94, 601-610.

[10]   Heng, D., Ma, S., Lee, J.J.M., et al. (2006) Modification of the NCEP ATP III Definitions of the Metabolic Syndrome for Use in Asians Identifies Individuals at Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease. Atherosclerosis, 186, 367-373.

[11]   Zaveri, N.T. (2006) Green Tea and Its Polyphenolic Catechins: Medicinal Uses in Cancer and Noncancer Applications. Life Sciences, 78, 2073-2080.

[12]   Trinder, P. (1969) Determination of Glucose in Blood Using Glucose Oxidase with an Alternative Oxygen Acceptor. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 6, 24-27.

[13]   Feldman, J.M. and Chapman, B.A. (1973) Radioimmunoassay of Insulin in Serum and Plasma. Clinical Chemistry, 19, 1250-1254.

[14]   Nayak, S.S. and Pattabiraman, T.N. (1981) A New Colorimetric Method for the Estimation of Glycosylated Hemoglobin. Clinica Chimica Acta, 109, 267-274.

[15]   Schettler, G. and Nüssel, E.(1975) Arbeitsmed. Sozialmed. Präventivmed., 10, 25.

[16]   Richmond, W. (1973) Preparation and Properties of a Cholesterol Oxidase from Nocardia sp. and Its Application to the Enzymatic Assay of Total Cholesterol in Serum. Clinical Chemistry, 19, 1350-1356.

[17]   Roeschlau, P. (1974) Enzymatische bestimmung das Gesamt-choiesterins in serum. Zeitschrift für Klinische Chemie und Klinische Biochemie, 12, 403-407.

[18]   Mayne, P.D. (1994) Clinical Chemistry in Diagnosis and Treatment. Vol. 11, 224.

[19]   Jacobe, N.J. and Van Demark, P.J. (1960) The Purification and Properties of the α-Glycerophosphate-Oxidizing Enzyme of Streptococcus faecalis 10C1. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 88, 250-255.

[20]   Werner, M., Gabrielson, D.G. and Eastman, J. (1981) Ultramicro Determination of Serum Triglycerides by Biolumi-nescent Assay. Clinical Chemistry, 27, 268-271.

[21]   Koditschek, L.K. and Umbreit, W.W. (1969) Alpha-Glycerophosphate Oxidase in Streptococcus faecium F 24. Journal of Bacteriology, 98, 1063-1068.

[22]   Castelli, W.P., Doyle, J.T., Gordon, T., Hames, C.G., Hjortland, M.C., Hulley, S.B., Kagan, A. and Zukel, W.J. (1977) HDL Cholesterol and Other Lipids in Coronary Heart Disease: Cooperative Lipoprotein Phenotyping Study. Circulation, 55, 767-772.

[23]   Burstein, M., Scholnic, H.R. and Morfin, R. (1970) Rapid Method for the Isolation of Lipoproteins from Human Serum by Precipitation with Polyanion. Journal of Lipid Research, 11, 583-595.

[24]   Young, D.S. (1990) Effects of Drugs on Clinical Laboratory Tests. Vol. 3, 3rd Edition, AACC Press, Washington DC, 104-106.

[25]   Tietz, N.W. (1986) Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 874-881.

[26]   Hohenwallner, W., Sommer, R., Wimmer, E. and Tschurtschenthaler, G.V. (1980) Quality Control in Assay of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol. Clinical Chemistry, 26, 177-178.

[27]   Tietz, N.W., Finley, P.R. and Pruden, E.L. (1990) Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests. 2nd Edition, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 304-306.

[28]   Friedewald, W.T., Levy, R.I. and Fredrickson, D.S. (1972) Estimation of the Concentration of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Plasma, without Use of the Preparative Ultracentrifuge. Clinical Chemistry, 18, 499-502.

[29]   Hansson, L.O. and Lindquist, L. (1997) C-Reactive Protein: Its Role in the Diagnosis and Follow-Up of Infectious Diseases. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 10, 196-201.

[30]   Vaishnavi, C. (1996) Immunology and Infectious Diseases, 6, 139-144.

[31]   Pulki, K., et al. (1986) Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation, 46, 606-607.

[32]   Hokama, Y. and Nakamura, R.M. (1987) C-Reactive Protein: Current Status and Future Perspectives. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, 1, 15-27.

[33]   Müller, W., Mierau, R. and Wohltmann, D. (1985) Interference of IgM Rheumatoid Factor with Nephelometric C-Reactive Protein Determinations. Journal of Immunological Methods, 80, 77-90.

[34]   Otsuji, S., Shibata, H. and Umeda, M. (1982) Turbidimetric Immunoassay of Serum C-Reactive Protein. Clinical Chemistry, 28, 2121-2124.

[35]   Tan, Y.Y., Sun, X., Tang, L., Zhang, N., Han, Q.H., Xu, M.X., Tan, X.Z., Tan, X.Y. and Hoffman, R.M. (2003) Automated Enzymatic Assay for Homocysteine. Clinical Chemistry, 49, 1029-1030.

[36]   Wolfram, S., Wang, Y. and Thielecke, F. (2006) Anti-Obesity Effects of Green Tea: From Bedside to Bench. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 50, 176-187.

[37]   Dulloo, A.G., Duret, C., Rohrer, D., Girardier, L., Mensi, N., Fathi, M., Chantre, P. and Vandermander, J. (1999) Efficacy of a Green Tea Extract Rich in Catechin Polyphenols and Caffeine in Increasing 24-h Energy Expenditure and Fat Oxidation in Humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 1040-1045.

[38]   WHO. World Health Organization Fact Sheet for World Wide Prevalence of Obesity.

[39]   Fernández-Sánchez, A., Madrigal-Santillán, E., Bautista, M., Esquivel-Soto, J., Morales-González, á., Esquivel-Chirino, C., et al. (2011) Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Obesity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 12, 3117-3132.

[40]   Senger, A.E.V., Schwanke, C.H., Gomes, I. and Valle Gottlieb, M.G. (2012) Effect of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Consumption on the Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Elderly. Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 16, 738-742.

[41]   Etchison, W.C., Bloodgood, E.A., Minton, C.P., Thompson, N.J., Collins, M.A., Hunter, S.C. and Dai, H. (2011) Body Mass Index and Percentage of Body Fat as Indicators for Obesity in an Adolescent Athletic Population. Sports Health, 3, 249-252.

[42]   Ode, J., Pivarnik, J.M., Reeves, M.J. and Knous, J.L. (2007) Body Mass Index as a Predictor of Percent Fat in College Athletes and Nonathletes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39, 403-409.

[43]   Maruyama, K., Iso, H., Sasaki, S. and Fukino, Y. (2009) The Association between Concentrations of Green Tea and Blood Glucose Levels. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 44, 41-45.

[44]   Veeranna, V., Ramesh, K., Zalawadiya, S.K., Niraj, A., Pradhan, J., Jacob, S. and Afonso, L. (2011) Glycosylated Hemoglobin and Prevalent Metabolic Syndrome in Nondiabetic Multiethnic U.S. Adults. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 9, 361-367.

[45]   Eeg-Olofsson, K., Cederholm, J., Nilsson, P.M., Zethelius, B., Svensson, A.M., Gudbj?rnsdóttir, S. and Eliasson, B. (2012) New Aspects of HbA1c as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Diseases in Type 2 Diabetes: An Observational Study from the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR). Journal of Internal Medicine, 268, 471-482.

[46]   Liu, K., Zhou, R., Wang, B., Chen, K., Shi, L.Y., Zhu, J.D. and Mi, M.T. (2013) Effect of Green Tea on Glucose Control and Insulin Sensitivity: A Meta-Analysis of 17 Randomized Controlled Trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 98, 340-348.

[47]   Singhania, P., Gupta, G. and Sen Ray, K. (2013) Inflammatory Biomarkers in Asian Indian Women with Metabolic Syndrome. Food & Nutrition Sciences, 4, 1021-1027.

[48]   Bryans, J.A., Judd, P.A. and Ellis, P.R. (2007) The Effect of Consuming Instant Black Tea on Postprandial Plasma Glucose and Insulin Concentrations in Healthy Humans. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 26, 471-477.

[49]   Jellinger, P.S., Smith, D.A., Mehta, A.E., Ganda, O., Handelsman, Y., Rodbard, H.W., Shepherd, M.D. and Seibel, J.A., The AACE Task Force for Management of Dyslipidemia and Prevention of Atherosclerosis (2012) American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists’ Guidelines for Management of Dyslipidemia and Prevention of Atherosclerosis. Endocrine Practice, 18, 1-78.

[50]   University of Maryland Medical Center. Green Tea.

[51]   Chan, P.T., Fong, W.P., Cheung, Y.L., Huang, Y., Ho, W.K. and Chen, Z.Y. (1999) Jasmine Green Tea Epicatechins Are Hypolipidemic in Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) Fed a High Fat Diet. Journal of Nutrition, 129, 1094-1101.

[52]   Saleem, M., Rani, S. and Gautham, K. (2011) High-Density Lipoproteins: A Novel Therapeutic Target for Cardiovas-cular Disease. Research Reports in Clinical Cardiology, 2, 1-6.

[53]   Tokunaga, S., White, I.R., Frost, C., Tanaka, K., Kono, S., Tokudome, S., et al. (2002) Green Tea Consumption and Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins in a Population of Healthy Workers in Japan. Annals of Epidemiology, 12, 157-165.

[54]   Juhel, C., Armand, M., Pafumi, Y., Rosier, C., Vandermander, J. and Lairon, D. (2000) Green Tea Extract (AR25) Inhibits Lipolysis of Triglycerides in Gastric and Duodenal Medium in Vitro. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 11, 45-51.

[55]   Danesh, J., Whincup, P., Walker, M., Lennon, L., Thomson, A., Appleby, P., et al. (2000) Low Grade Inflammation and Coronary Heart Disease: Prospective Study and Updated Meta-Analysis. British Medical Journal, 321, 199-204.

[56]   Ridker, P.M. and Cook, N. (2004) Clinical Usefulness of Very High and Very Low Levels of C-Reactive Protein across the Full Range of Framingham Risk Scores. Circulation, 109, 1955-1959.

[57]   Maki, T., Pham, N.M., Yoshida, D., Yin, G., Ohnaka, K., Takayanagi, R. and Kono, S. (2010) The Relationship of Coffee and Green Tea Consumption with High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Japanese Men and Women. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 48, 849-854.

[58]   Hodgson, J.M., Burke, V., Beilin, L.J., Croft, K.D. and Puddey, I.B. (2003) Can Black Tea Influence Plasma Total Homocysteine Concentrations? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 77, 907-911.

[59]   Olthof, M.R., Hollman, P.C., Zock, P.L. and Katan, M.B. (2001) Consumption of High Doses of Chlorogenic Acid, Present in Coffee, or of Black Tea Increases Plasma Total Homocysteine Concentrations in Humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 73, 532-538.