OJPed  Vol.4 No.4 , December 2014
Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination in Severe Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Outpatient Visits at Three Pediatric Primary Care Clinics in Shibata City, Niigata Prefecture, Japan
The impact of rotavirus (RV) vaccination in reducing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in outpatient settings was prospectively surveyed in three pediatric clinics in Shibata City. In children younger than 3 years of age, the occurrence of severe RVGE among all acute gastroenteritis (AGE) was found to be significantly lower in three seasons after introduction of RV vaccines, compared to that in 2011, before introduction of RV vaccines. The incidence rates of severe RVGE among children younger than 3 years of age were found to be reduced by 71.2%, 47.7%, and 81.1% for 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively, compared to that in 2011. These results suggest that the RV vaccination is effective for the prevention of severe RVGE in Japanese voluntary RV vaccination settings with estimated coverage rates of 32.5%, 40.5% and 47.1% for 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively. It is expected that the reducing effect on severe RVGE would be persistently established by increasing the vaccine coverage rates.

Cite this paper
Oishi, T. , Tsukano, S. , Nakano, T. , Sudo, S. and Kuwajima, H. (2014) Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination in Severe Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Outpatient Visits at Three Pediatric Primary Care Clinics in Shibata City, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Open Journal of Pediatrics, 4, 291-299. doi: 10.4236/ojped.2014.44040.
[1]   Tate, J.E., Burton, A.H., Boschi-Pinto, C., Steele, A.D., Duque, J. and Parashar, U.D., the WHO-coordinated Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network (2011) 2008 Estimate of Worldwide Rotavirus-Associated Mortalityin Children Younger than 5 Years before the Introduction of Universal Rotavirus Vaccination Programmes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 12, 136-141. http://dx.doi.org/DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70253-5

[2]   Yokoo, M., Arisawa, K. and Nakagomi, O. (2004) Estimation of Annual Incidence, Age-Specific Incidence Rate, and Cumulative Risk of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis among Children in Japan. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, 57, 166-171.

[3]   Nakagomi, T., Nakagomi, O., Takahashi, Y., Enoki, M., Suzuki, T. and Kilgore, P.E. (2005) Incidence and Burden of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Japan, as Estimated from a Prospective Sentinel Hospital Study. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 192, S106-S110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/431503

[4]   Yen, C., Tate, J.E., Hyde, T.B., Cortese, M.M., Lopman, B.A., Jiang, B., Glass, R.I. and Parashar, U.D. (2014) Rotavirus Vaccines—Current Status and Future Considerations. Human Vaccine & Immunotherapeutics, 10, 1-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/hv.28857

[5]   Patel, M.M., Glass, R., Desai, R., Tate, J.E. and Parashar, U.D. (2012) Fulfilling the Promise of Rotavirus Vaccines: How Far Have We Come Since Licensure? The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 12, 561-570. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(12)70029-4

[6]   Patel, M.M., Steele, D., Gentsch, J.R., Wecker, J., Glass, R.I. and Parashar, U.D. (2011) Real-World Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 30, S1-S5.

[7]   World Health Organization (2013) Rotavirus Vaccines WHO Position Paper—January 2013. Weekly Epidemiological record, 88, 49-64.

[8]   Committee for National Immunization Policy (2013) Interim Report of rotavirus Vaccination Working Group (in Japanese).

[9]   Weinberg, G.A. and Szilagyi, P.G. (2010) Vaccine Epidemiology: Efficacy, Effectiveness, and the Translational Research Roadmap. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 201, 1607-1610.

[10]   Clark, H.F., Lawley, D., Mallette, L.A., Dinubile, M.J. and Hodinka, R.L. (2009) Decline in Cases of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Presenting to The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia after Introduction of a Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 16, 382-386.

[11]   Zeller, M., Rahman, M., Heylen, E., De Coster, S., De Vos, S., Arijs, I., Novo, L., Verstappen, N., Van Ranst, M. and Matthijnssens, J. (2010) Rotavirus Incidence and Genotype Distribution before and after National Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction in Belgium. Vaccine, 28, 7507-7513.

[12]   Rae, M., Strens, D., Vergison, A., Verghote, M. and Standaert, B. (2011) Reduction in Pediatric Rotavirus-Related Hospitalizations after Universal Rotavirus Vaccination in Belgium. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 30, e120-e125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e318214b811

[13]   Bégué, R.E. and Perrin, K. (2010) Reduction in Gastroenteritis with the Use of Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine in a Primary Practice. Pediatrics, 126, e40-e45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2009-2069

[14]   Oishi, T., Taguchi, T., Nakano, T., Sudo, S. and Kuwajima, H. (2014) The Occurrence of Severe Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children under 3 Years of Age before and after the Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccine: A Prospective Observational Study in Three Pediatric Clinics in Shibata City, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, 67, 304-306.

[15]   Ruuska, T. and Vesikari, T. (1990) Rotavirus Disease in Finnish Children: Use of Numerical Scores for Clinical Severity of Diarrhoeal Episodes. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 22, 259-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365549009027046

[16]   Tate, J.E., Haynes, A., Payne, D.C., Cortese, M.M., Lopman, B.A., Patel, M.M. and Parashar, U.D. (2013) Trends in National Rotavirus Activity before and after Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccine into the National Immunization Program in the United States, 2000 to 2012. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 32, 741-744. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e31828d639c

[17]   Curns, A.T., Steiner, C.A., Barrett, M., Hunter, K., Wilson, E. and Parashar, U.D. (2011) Reduction in Acute Gastroenteritis Hospitalizations among US Children after Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccine: Analysis of Hospital Discharge Data from 18 US States. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 201, 1617-1624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/652403

[18]   Gil-Prieto, R., Gonzalez-Escaladaa, A., Alvaro-Mecaa, A., Garcia-Garciaa, L., San-Martinb, M., González-Lópezb, A. and Gil-de-Miguela, A. (2013) Impact of Non-Routine Vaccination on Hospitalizations for Diarrhoea and Rotavirus Infections in Spain. Vaccine, 31, 5000-5004.

[19]   Dudareva-Vizule, S., Koch, J., an der Heiden, M., Oberle, D., Keller-Stanislawski, B. and Wichmann, O. (2012) Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination in Regions with Low and Moderate Vaccine Uptake in Germany. Human Vaccine & Immunotherapy, 8, 1407-1415. http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/hv.21593

[20]   Steyer, A., Sagadin, M., Kolenc, M. and Poljsak-Prijatelj, M. (2014) Molecular Characterization of Rotavirus Strains from Pre- and Post-Vaccination Periods in a Country with Low Vaccination Coverage: The Case of Slovenia. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, in press.