ABSTRACT This paper considers blind chip rate estimation of DS-SS signals in multi-rate and multi-user DS-CDMA systems over channels having slow flat Rayleigh fading plus additive white Gaussian noise. Channel impulse response is estimated by a subspace method, and then the chip rate of each signal is estimated using zero crossing of estimated differential channel impulse response. For chip rate estimation of each user, an algorithm which uses weighted zero-crossing ratio is proposed. Maximum value of the weighted zero crossing ratio takes place in the Nyquist rate sampling frequency, which equals to the twice of the chip rate. Furthermore, bit time of each user is estimated using fluctuations of autocorrelation estimators. Since code length of each user can be obtained using bit time and chip time ratio. Fading channels reduce reliability factor of the proposed algo-rithm. To overcome this problem, a receiver with multiple antennas is proposed, and the reliability factor of the proposed algorithm is analyzed over both spatially correlated and independent fading channels.
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