AA  Vol.4 No.4 , November 2014
The Impact of Assisted Reproduction on Socio-Cultural Values and Social Norms
Abstract: Since the birth of the first “test tube” baby, the use of in vitro fertilization (IVF) has undergone an enormous metamorphosis. Initially designed for blocked fallopian tubes, IVF has found a number of other clinical applications over the past 40 years. However, as the science has advanced, traditional norms of conception and parenthood have been challenged and reproductive health ethics, guidelines, and law struggle to keep pace. Controversies and debates have arisen within the law, public policy, and the meaning of family across societies and religious sects. This paper will highlight some of the current and complex social, moral, and legal questions surrounding the implementation and advancement of assisted reproduction including Cross Border Reproductive Care, Oocyte Donation and Consents, Oncofertility, Posthumous Reproduction raising fresh discussion and debate.
Cite this paper: Lindheim, S. , Coyne, K. , Ayensu-Coker, L. , O’Leary, K. , Sinn, S. and Jaeger, A. (2014) The Impact of Assisted Reproduction on Socio-Cultural Values and Social Norms. Advances in Anthropology, 4, 227-242. doi: 10.4236/aa.2014.44025.

[1]   Adsuar, N., Zweifel, J., Pratt, E., Davidson, M., Olive, D., & Lindheim, S. (2005). Assessment of Wishes Regarding Disposition of Oocytes and Embryo Management among Ovum Donors in an Anonymous Egg Donation Program. Fertility and Sterility, 84, 1513-1516.

[2]   American Cancer Society (2010). Cancer Facts & Figures 2010. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society.

[3]   ASRM Ethics Committee (2002). Psychological Assessment of Gamete Donors and Recipients. Fertility & Sterility, 77, S11-S12.

[4]   ASRM Ethics Committee (2005). Fertility Preservation and Reproduction in Cancer Patients. Fertility and Sterility, 83, 1622-1628.

[5]   ASRM Ethics Committee (2007). Financial Compensation of Oocyte Donors. Fertility and Sterility, 88, 305-309.

[6]   ASRM Ethics Committee (2013). Cross-Border Reproductive Care: A Committee Opinion. Fertility and Sterility, 100, 645-650.

[7]   ASRM Ethics Committee (2013). Recommendations for Gamete and Embryo Donation: A Committee Opinion. Fertility and Sterility, 99, 47-62.e1.

[8]   Bailey, R. (2005). Liberation Biology: The Scientific and Moral Case for the Biotech Revolution. New York: Prometheus Books.

[9]   Banuaz-Zubair, M. (2007). Who Is a Parent? Parenthood in Islamic Ethics. Journal of Medical Ethics, 33, 605-609.

[10]   Benagiano, G. (2008). Human Reproduction: Are Religions Defending the Core of Human Nature, or the Survival of Traditional Cultural Schemes? Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 17, 6-8.

[11]   Beskow, L., Botkin, J., Daly, M., Juengst, E., Lehmann, L., Merz, J., Pentz, R., Press, N., Ross, L., Sugarman, J., Susswein, L., Terry, S., Austin, M., & Burke, W. (2004). Ethical Issues in Identifying and Recruiting Participants for Familial Genetic Research. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 130, 424-431.

[12]   Biggers, J. (1978). In Vitro Fertilization, Embryo Culture and Embryo Transfer in the Human. Prepared for the Ethics Advisory Board of the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, September 15.

[13]   Biggers, J. (1981). In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer in Human Beings. The New England Journal of Medicine, 304, 336-342.

[14]   Biggers, J. (2013). IVF and Embryo Transfer: Historical Origin and Development. Fertility Magazine, 15, 16-26.

[15]   Blyth, E. (2010). Fertility Patients’ Experiences of Cross-Border Reproductive Care. Fertility and Sterility, 94, e11-e15.

[16]   Broyde, M. (2010). The Establishment of Maternity and Paternity in Jewish and American Law. Jewish Law Articles: Examining Halacha, Jewish Issues and Secular Law.

[17]   Buster, J., Bustillo, M., Thorneycroft, I., Simon, J., Boyers, S., Marshall, J., Louw, J., Seed, R. W., & Seed, R. G. (1983). Non-Surgical Transfer of in Vivo Fertilized Donated Ova to Five Infertile Women: Report of Two Pregnancies. The Lancet, 2, 223-224.

[18]   Bustillo, M., Buster, J., Cohen, S., Hamilton, F., Thorneycroft, I., Simon, J., Rodi, I., Boyers, S., Marshall, J., & Louw, J. (1984). Delivery of a Healthy Infant Following Nonsurgical Ovum Transfer. Journal of the American Medical Association, 251, 889.

[19]   Catechism of the Catholic Church, Part Three, Section Two, Chapter Two, Article 6, III, Paragraphs 2376-2378.

[20]   Churchill, F. (1846). On the Theory and Practice of Midwifery (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Blanchard.

[21]   Cialdini, R., Cacioppo, R., Bassett, R., & Miller, J. (1978). Low-Ball Procedure for Producing Compliance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 463-476.

[22]   Cobo, A., Bellver, J., de los Santos, M., & Remohí, J. (2012). Viral Screening of Spent Culture Media and Liquid Nitrogen Samples of Oocytes and Embryos from Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Chronically Infected Women Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization Cycles. Fertility and Sterility, 97, 74-78.

[23]   Cohen, I. (2010). Protecting Patients with Passports: Medical Tourism and the Patient-Protective Argument. Iowa Law Review, 95, 1467-1567.

[24]   Cohn, D., Passel, J., Wang, W., & Livingston, G. (2011). Barely Half of US Adults Are Married—A Record Low. PewResearch Social & Demographic Trends.

[25]   Congregation for the Doctrine of Faith (CDF) Donum Vitae II.4,5.

[26]   Cristofari, C., & Guitton, M. J. (2014). The Steampunk Doctor: Practicing Medicine in a Mechanical Age. Advances in Anthropology, 4, 89-98.

[27]   Crooks, V., Turner, L., Synder, J., Johnston, R., & Kingsbury, P. (2011). Promoting Medical Tourism to India: Messages, Images and the Marketing of International Patient Travel. Social Science & Medicine, 72, 726-732.

[28]   Crozier, G. (2010). Protecting Cross-Border Providers of Ova and Surrogacy Services? Global Social Policy, 10, 299-303.

[29]   Deepinder, F., & Agarwal, A. (2008). Technical and Ethical Challenges of Fertility Preservation in Young Cancer Patients. Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 16, 784-791.

[30]   Doukas, D., & Hardwig, J. (2003). Using the Family Covenant in Planning End-of-Life Care: Obligations and Promises of Patients, Families, and Physicians. Journal of the American Geriatriatrics Society, 51, 1155-1158.

[31]   Edwards, R. (1965). Maturation in Vitro of Human Ovarian Oocytes. The Lancet, 2, 926-929.

[32]   Edwards, R., Bavister, B., & Steptoe, P. (1969). Early Stages of Fertilization in Vitro of Human Oocytes Matured in Vitro. Nature, 221, 632-635.

[33]   Edwards, R., Steptoe, P., & Purdy, J. (1970). Fertilization and Clevage in Vitro of Preovular Human Oocytes. Nature, 227, 1303-1307.

[34]   Goold, I., & Savulescu, J. (2009). In Favour of Freezing Eggs for Non-Medical Reasons. Bioethics, 23, 47-58.

[35]   Gracia, C., & Ginsberg, J. (2007). Fertility Risk in Pediatric and Adolescent Cancers. In T. S. K. Woodruff (Ed.), Oncofertility Preservation for Cancer Survivors (pp. 57-68). New York: Springer Verlag.

[36]   Grazi, R., & Wolowelsky, J. B. (2008). The Use of Cryopreserved Sperm and Pre-Embryos in Contemporary Jewish Law and Ethics. In: Jewish Law.

[37]   Gurmankin, A. (2001). Risk Information Provided to Prospective Oocyte Donors in a Preliminary Phone Call. American Journal of Bioethics, 1, 3-15.

[38]   Gurtin, Z. (2011). Banning Reproductive Travel: Turkey’s ART Legislation and Third Party Assisted Conception. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 23, 555-564.

[39]   Harwood, K. (2009). Egg Freezing: A Breakthrough for Reproductive Autonomy. Bioethics, 23, 39-46.

[40]   Heape, W. (1891). Preliminary Note on the Transplantation and Growth of Mammalian Ova within A Uterine Foster Mother. Proceedings of the Royal Society, 48, 457-459.

[41]   Henig, R. (2004). Pandora’s Baby. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

[42]   Homer, N., Szelinger, S., Redman, M., Duggan, D., Tembe, W., Muehling, J., Pearsoen, J., Stephan, D., Nelson, S., & Craig, D. (2008) Resolving Individuals Contributing Trace Amounts of DNA to Highly Complex Mixtures Using High-Density SNP Genotyping Microarrays. PLoS Genet, 4, e10000167.

[43]   Hudson, N., Culley, L., Blyth, E., Norton, W., Rapport, F., & Pacey, A. (2011). Cross-Border Reproductive Care: A Review of the Literature. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 22, 673-685.

[44]   Inhorn, M., & Gurtin, Z. (2011). Cross-Border Reproductive Care: A Future Research Agenda. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 23, 665-676.

[45]   Inhorn, M., & Patrizio, P. (2009). Rethinking Reproductive “Tourism” as Reproductive “Exile”. Fertility and Sterility, 92, 901-906.

[46]   Inhorn, M., & Patrizio, P. (2012). The Global Landscape of Cross-Border Reproductive Care: Twenty Key Findings for the New Millennium. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 24, 158-163.

[47]   Inhorn, M. C. (2005). Making Muslin Babies: Sunni versus Shi’a Approaches to IVF and Gamete Donation. Proceedings of the IUSSP Annual Conference, Marrakech, 15-19 July 2005.

[48]   Jaeger, A., Ross, L., & Lindheim, S. (2012). Observed Discrepancies in Donors’ Information Sharing and Oocyte-Embryo Management and Disposition Reported To Reproductive Health Professionals: A Call for Programmatic Improvement. Journal of Bioethics Primary Research, 3, 23-32.

[49]   Johnson, K., Kuchibhatla, M., & Tulsky, J. (2008). What Explains Racial Differences in the Use of Advance Directives and Attitudes toward Hospice Care? Journal of the American Geriatriatrics Society, 56, 1953-1958.

[50]   Jones, B. (2009). Lord Winston Labels Egg Freezing an “Expensive Confidence Trick”. BioNews.

[51]   Jones, H. (2011). Seven Roads Traveled Well and Seven to Be Traveled More. Fertility and Sterility, 95, 853-856.

[52]   Knoppers, B., & LeBris, S. (1991). Recent Advances in Medically Assisted Conception: Legal, Ethical and Social Issues. American Journal of Law and Medicine, 17, 329-361.

[53]   Lee, S., Schover, L., Partridge, A., Patrizio, P., Wallace, W., Hagerty, K., Beck, L., Brennan, L., & Oktay, K. (2006). American Society of Clinical Oncology Recommendations on Fertility Preservation in Cancer Patients. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 24, 2917-2931.

[54]   Leeton, J., King, C., & Withers, R. (1993). The Changing Patterns of Egg Donation. Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, 10, 173-174.

[55]   Lutjen, P., Trounson, A., Leeton, J., Findlay, J., Wood, C., & Renou, P. (1984). The Establishment and Maintenance of Pregnancy Using in Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Donation in a Patient with Primary Ovarian Failure. Nature, 307, 174-175.

[56]   Martin, J., Hamilton, B., Ventura, S., Osterman, M., Kirmeyer, S., Mathews, T., & Wilson, E. (2011). Births: Final Data for 2009. National Vital Statistics Reports, 60, 1-71.

[57]   Matorras, R. (2005). Reproductive Exile versus Reproductive Tourism. Human Reproduction, 20, 3571.

[58]   Maxwell, K., Cholst, I., & Rosenwaks, Z. (2008). The Incidence of Both Serious and Minor Complications in Young Women Undergoing Oocyte Donation. Fertility and Sterility, 90, 2165-2171.

[59]   McGee, G. (1997). Subject to Payment? Journal of the American Medical Association, 278, 199-200.

[60]   McKelvey, A., David, A., Shenfield, F., & Jauniaux, E. (2009). The Impact of Cross-Border Reproductive Care or “Fertility Tourism” on NHS Maternity Services. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 116, 1520-1523.

[61]   McLaughlin, L. (1982). The Pill, John Rock, and the Church. Boston, MA: Little Brown and Co.

[62]   Noyes, N., Porcu, E., & Borini, A. (2009). Over 900 Oocyte Cryopreservation Babies Born with No Apparent Increase in Congenital Anomalies. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 18, 769-776.

[63]   Pande, A. (2011). Transnational Commercial Surrogacy in India: Gifts for Global Sisters? Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 23, 618-625.

[64]   Pennings, G. (2004). Legal Harmonization and Reproductive Tourism in Europe. Human Reproduction, 19, 2689-2694.

[65]   Practice Committee of American Society for Reproductive Medicine (2013). Fertility Preservation in Patients Undergoing Gonadotoxic Therapy or Gonadectomy: A Committee Opinion. Fertility and Sterility, 100, 1214-1223.

[66]   Qadeer, I. (2010). Benefits and Threats of International Trade in Health: A Case of Surrogacy in India. Global Social Policy, 10, 303-305.

[67]   Quinn, G., Knapp, C., Malo, T., McIntyre, J., Jacobsen, P., & Vadaparampil, S. (2012). Physicians’ Undecided Attitudes toward Posthumous Reproduction: Fertility Preservation in Cancer Patients with a Poor Prognosis. Journal of Supportive Oncology, 10, 160-165.

[68]   Ramsaroop, S., Reid, M., & Adelman, R. (2007). Completing an Advance Directive in the Primary Care Setting: What Do We Need for Success? Journal of the American Geriatriatrics Society, 55, 277-283.

[69]   Rock, J., & Menkin, M. (1944). In Vitro Fertilization and Cleavage in Human Ovarian Eggs. Science, 100, 105-107.

[70]   Rybak, E., & Leiman, H. (2009). Egg Freezing, Procreative Liberty, and ICSI: The Double Standards Confronting Elective Self-Donation of Oocytes. Fertility and Sterility, 92, 1509-1512.

[71]   Sauer, M. (1997). Exploitation or a Woman’s Right? British Medical Journal, 314, 1403.

[72]   Sauer, M., Paulson, R., & Lobo, R. (1993). Pregnancy after Age 50: Application of Oocyte Donation to Women after the Natural Menopause. The Lancet, 341, 321-323.

[73]   Schenker, J. (1998). Oocyte Donation: Religious Perspective. In M. Sauer (Ed.), Principles in Ovum Donation (pp. 341-360). Philadelphia, PA: Springer.

[74]   Schickedanz, A., Schillinger, D., Landefeld, C., Knight, S., Williams, B., & Sudore, R. (2009). A Clinical Framework for Improving the Advance Care Planning Process: Start with Patients’ Self-Identified Barriers. Journal of the American Geriatriatrics Society, 57, 31-39.

[75]   Scientific Advisory Committee of the RCOG (2011). Reproductive Ageing. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Scientific Impact Paper No. 24.

[76]   Shefi, S., Raviv, G., Eisenberg, M., Weissenberg, R., Jalalian, L., Levron, J., Band, G., Turek, P., & Madgar, I. (2006). Posthumous Sperm Retrieval: Analysis of Time Interval to Harvest Sperm. Human Reproduction, 21, 2890-2893.

[77]   Shenfield, F. (2011). Implementing a Good Practice Guide for CBRC: Perspectives from the ESHRE Cross-Border Reproductive Care Taskforce. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 23, 657-664.

[78]   Shenfield, F., de Mouzon, J., Pennings, G., Ferraretti, A., Andersen, A., deWert, G., & Goossens, V. (2010). The ESHRE Taskforce on Cross Border Reproductive Care: Cross Border Reproductive Care in Six European Countries. Human Reproduction, 25, 1361-1368.

[79]   Sleep, J. (1991). Development of International Ethical Guidelines for Epidemiological Research and Practice. Report of the Proceedings of the 25th Council for the International Organisation of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) Conference, WHO Headquarters. Geneva, Switzerland, 7-9 November 1990. Midwifery, 7, 42-44.

[80]   Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (2012). Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report. Atlanta, GA: US Dept of Health and Human Services.

[81]   Sommezer, M., & Oktay, K. (2006). Fertility Preservation in Young Women Undergoing Breast Cancer Therapy. Oncologist, 11, 422-434.

[82]   Speier, A. (2011). Brokers, Consumers and the Internet: How North American Consumers Navigate Their Infertility Journeys. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 23, 592-599.

[83]   Spivey, W., Abramson, N., Iserson, K., MacKay, C., & Cohen, M. (1991). Informed Consent for Biomedical Research in Acute Care Medicine. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 20, 1251-1265.

[84]   Spoelhof, G., & Elliott, B. (2012). Implementing Advance Directives in Office Practice. American Family Physician, 85, 461-466.

[85]   Steptoe, P., & Edwards, R. (1970). Laproscopic Recovery of Preovulatory Human Oocytes after Priing of Ovaries with Gonadotrophins. The Lancet, 1, 683-689.

[86]   Steptoe, P., & Edwards, R. (1978). Birth after Reimplantation of a Human Embryo. The Lancet, 2, 366.

[87]   Storrow, R. (2006). Quests for Conception: Fertility Tourists, Globalization and Feminist Legal Theory. Hastings Law Journal, 57, 295-330.

[88]   The Practice Committees of ASRM and SART (2013). Mature Oocyte Cryopreservation: A Guideline. Fertility and Sterility, 99, 37-43.

[89]   Trounson, A., Leeton, J., Besanko, M., Wood, C., & Conti, A. (1983). Pregnancy Established in an Infertile Patient after Transfer of a Donated Embryo Fertilised in Vitro. British Medical Journal, 286, 835-838.

[90]   Wallace, W., Anderson, R., & Irvine, D. (2005). Fertility Preservation for Young Patients with Cancer: Who Is at Risk and What Can Be Offered? The Lancet Oncology, 6, 209-218.

[91]   Whittaker, A., & Speier, A. (2010). “Cycling Overseas”: Care, Commodification, and Stratification in Cross-Border Reproductive Travel. Medical Anthropology, 29, 363-383.

[92]   Zilberstein, M., Feingold, M., & Seibel, M. (1997). Umbilical-Cord-Blood Banking: Lessons Learned from Gamete Donation. The Lancet, 349, 642-643.