OJMM  Vol.4 No.4 , December 2014
Prevalence of Cryptosporidial Oocysts in Soil of Recreational Parks in Abuja, Nigeria
ABSTRACT
Contamination of soil with cryptosporidial oocysts poses a great health risk to people especially in individuals who are immune-compromised. Exposure to contaminated soil can cause diarrhoea in humans especially in children who play around the parks and may not wash their hands before handling food. The prevalence of cryptosporidial oocyst in soils of 4 recreational parks in Abuja, Nigeria was investigated. Four hundred soil samples were collected from various locations within the recreational parks and examined for the presence of cryptosporidial oocyst using modified acid fast staining technique. In nine (2.3%) of the samples, 8 were from park A and 1 was from park B contained cryptosporidial oocyst. There was significant association (χ2 = 20.1; df = 2; p = 0.00004) between prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and level of hygiene of the parks. It was concluded that soil in recreational parks may be a source of infection with Cryptosporidium oocysts.

Cite this paper
Olufemi, I. , Otalu Jr., O. , Bello, M. , Lawal, I. and Kwaga, J. (2014) Prevalence of Cryptosporidial Oocysts in Soil of Recreational Parks in Abuja, Nigeria. Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, 4, 224-227. doi: 10.4236/ojmm.2014.44024.
References
[1]   Guerrant, R.L. (1997) Cryptosporidiosis: An Emerging, Highly Infectious Threat. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 3, 51-56.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0301.970106

[2]   Caccio, S., Pinter, E., Faitimi, R., Mezzaro, I. and Pozio, E. (2002). Human Infection with Cryptosporidium felis; Case Report and Literature Review. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 81, 85-86.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0801.010269

[3]   Tzipori, S.R., Campbell, I. and Angus K.W. (1982) The Therapeutic Effect of 16 Antimicrobial Agents on Cryptosporidial Infection in Mice. Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, 60, 187-190.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/icb.1982.20

[4]   Current, W.L. (1985) Cryptosporidiosis in the Acquired Immunedeficiency Syndrome. A Case Report. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association, 187, 1334-1338.

[5]   Hoerr, F.J., Current, W.L. and Haynes, T.B. (1985) Fatal Cryptosporidiosis in Quail. Avian Diseases, 30, 421-425.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1590550

[6]   Godwin, M.A. (1989) Cryptosporidiosis in Birds. A Review. Avian Pathology, 18, 365-384.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079458908418612

[7]   Lindsay, D.S. and Blagburn, B.L. (1990). Cryptosporidiosis in Birds. In: Dubey, J.P., Speer, C.A., and Fayer, R., Eds., Cryptosporidiosis in Man and Animals, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 133-148.

[8]   Current, W.L. (1987) Cryptosporidium: Its Biology and Potential for Environmental Transmission. Journal of Environmental Health, 17, 21-51.

[9]   Mawdsley, J.L., Brooks, A.E. and Merry, R.J. (1996) Movement of the Protozoan Pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum through Three Contrasting Soil Types. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 21, 30-36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00335990

[10]   O’Donoghue, P.J. (1995) Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis in Man and Animals. International Journal of Parasitology, 25, 139-195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0020-7519(94)E0059-V

[11]   Mackenzie, W.R., Hoxie, N.J., Proctor, M.E., Gradus, M.S., Blair, K.A., Peterson, D.E., Kazmierczak, J.J., Addiass, D.G., Fox, K.R., Rose, J.B. and Davis, J.P. (1994) A Massive Outbreak in Milwaukee of Cryptosporidium Infection Transmitted through the Public Water Supply. New England Journal of Medicine, 331, 161-167.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199407213310304

[12]   Mbanugo, J.I. and Agu, V.C. (2006) Prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum Infections in Children, Aged 0-15 Years, in Anambra State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, 26, 1-5.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njpar.v26i1.37720

[13]   Kwaga, J.K., Umoh, J.U. and Odoba, M.B. (1988) Cryptosporidium Infection in Humans with Gastroenteritis in Zaria, Nigeria. Epidemiology International, 101, 93-97.

[14]   Kwaga, J.K.P., Uzor, E.I. and Umoh, J.U. (1988). Cryptosporidium Infections in Calves and Piglet in Some Parts of Kaduna, Nigeria. Zariya Veterinarian, 3, 86-89.

[15]   Ayeni, A.O., Olubunmi, P.A. and Abe, J.O. (1985) The Occurrence of Cryptosporidium in Faeces of Livestock in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Tropical Veterinarian, 3, 96-100.

 
 
Top