AJPS  Vol.5 No.24 , November 2014
Effect of Using Two Different Types of Carbon Nanotubes for Blackberry (Rubus adenotrichos) in Vitro Plant Rooting, Growth and Histology
Abstract: Nanoparticles are able to interact with biomolecules, creating functional nanosystems for transportation within in vivo cells, and leading to the study of their potential applications in the field of plant biotechnology. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the growth and rooting effect of functionalized (SWCNTs-COOH) and non-functionalized nanoparticles with iron residue inner particles (SWCNTs-Fe) in blackberry (Rubus adenotrichos) in vitro plants. Two types of SWCNTs were used, both of them characterized in a solid sample through Raman spectroscopy (λ = 532 nm) showing differences in the G band between SWCNT + Fe and SWCNT + COOH. The in vitro plants (approximately 15 mm length) were inoculated in a rooting medium. Six treatments were established: 4, 8, 12 μg/ml for each type of SWCNTs and a control without nanotubes. The assessed variables consisted of the average number of days for root emergence, average number of roots per plant, average root length per plant and the average stem length. This study determined that, in general, the SWCNTs-COOH promoted the growth of the in vitro plants under this assay, when compared to the SWCNTs-Fe trials. The lowest SWCNTs-COOH dose evidenced the best results for the assessed variables. Additionally, the histological analysis also evidenced that the plants treated with SWCNTs-COOH nanotubes (4 μg/ml) increased their cellular metabolism when compared to the control group.
Cite this paper: Flores, D. , Chacón, R. , Alvarado, L. , Schmidt, A. , Alvarado, C. and Chaves, J. (2014) Effect of Using Two Different Types of Carbon Nanotubes for Blackberry (Rubus adenotrichos) in Vitro Plant Rooting, Growth and Histology. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 3510-3518. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.524367.

[1]   Ma, X., Geiser-Lee, J., Deng, Y. and Kolmakov, A. (2010) Interactions between Engineered Nanoparticles (ENPs) and Plants: Phytotoxicity Uptake and Accumulation. Science of the Total Environment, 408, 3053-3061.

[2]   Jackson, P., Jacobsen, N., Baun, A., Birkedal, R., Kühnel, D., Jensen, K., Vogel, U. and Wallin, H. (2013) Bioaccumulation and Ecotoxicity of Carbon Nanotubes. Chemistry Central Journal, 7, 154-175.

[3]   Lin, C., Fugetsu, B., Su, Y. and Watari, F. (2009) Studies on Toxicity of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Arabidopsis T87 Suspension Cells. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 170, 578-583.

[4]   Cañas, J.E., Long, M., Nations, S., Vadan, R., Dai, L., Luo, M., Ambikapathi, R., Lee, E.H. and Olszyk, D. (2008) Effects of Functionalized and Nonfunctionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Root Elongation of Select Crop Species. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 27, 1922-1931.

[5]   Husen, A. and Siddiqi, K. (2014) Carbon and Fullerene Nanomaterials in Plant. Journal of Nanobiotechnology, 12, 16.

[6]   Flores, D., Chaves, J., Chacón, R. and Schmidt, A. (2013) A Novel Technique Using SWCNTs to Enhanced Development and Root Growth of Fig Plants (Ficuscarica). NSTI-Nanotech, 3, 167-170.

[7]   Mangir, T., Chaves, J. and Chaves, S. (2008) Impact of CNT Ingestion on In-Vitro Cell. NSTI-Nanotech 2008, 2, 168-171.

[8]   Flores, D., Chacón, R., Jiménez, V. and Ortiz, F. (2012) Enraizamiento de mora (Rubusadenotrichos) en medio líquido en el sistema de inmersión temporal y su aclimatación en invernadero. Tecnologíaen Marcha, 25, 3-9.

[9]   Çaglayan, K., Serce, C., Barutcu, E., Kaya, K., Medina, V., Gazel, M., Soylu, S. and Caliskan, O. (2010) Comparison by Sequence-Based and Electron Microscopic Analyses of Fig Mosaic Virus Isolates Obtained from Field and Experimentally Inoculated Fig Plants. Plant Disease, 94, 1448-1452.

[10]   Elbeaino, T., Digiaro, M., Alabdullah, A., Stradis, A., Minafra, A., Mielke, N., Castellano, A. and Martelli, G. (2009) A Multipartite Single-Stranded Negative-Sense RNA Virus Is the Putative Agent of Fig Mosaic Disease. Journal of General Virology, 90, 1281-1288.

[11]   Castellano, M., Gattoni, G., Minafra, A., Conti, M. and Martelli, G. (2007) Fig Mosaic in Mexico and South Africa. Journal of Plant Pathology, 89, 441-444.

[12]   Swan, A. (2008) Raman Spectroscopy. In: Freiman, E., Hooker, S., Migler, K. and Arepalli, S., Eds., Measurement Issues in Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes, National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication, l960-1978.

[13]   Dresselhaus, M.S., Dresselhaus, G., Saitoc, R. and Joriod, A. (2005) Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon Nanotubes. Physics Reports, 409, 47-99.

[14]   Jorio, A., Pimenta, M.A., Souza Filho, A.G., Saito, R., Dresselhaus, G. and Dresselhaus, M.S. (2003) Characterizing Carbon Nanotube Samples with Resonance Raman Scattering. New Journal of Physics, 5, 1391.

[15]   Mondal, A., Basu, R., Das, S. and Nandy, P. (2011) Beneficial Role of Carbon Nanotubes on Mustard Plant Growth: An Agricultural Prospect. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 13, 4519-4528.

[16]   Khodakovskaya, M., Dervishi, E., Mahmood, M., Xu, Y., Li, Z., Watanabe, F. and Biris, A. (2009) Carbon Nanotubes Are Able to Penetrate Plant Seed Coat and Dramatically Affect Seed Germination and Plant Growth. ACS Nano, 3, 3221-3227.

[17]   Khodakovskaya, M.V., De Silva, K., Dervishi, E. and Villagarcía, H. (2012) Carbon Nanotubes Induce Growth Enhancement of Tobacco Cell. ACS Nano, 6, 2128-2135.

[18]   Rico, C., Majumdar, S., Duarte, M., Peralta, J.R. and Gardea, J.L. (2011) Interaction of Nanoparticles with Edible Plants and Their Posible Implications in the Food Chain. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 3485-3498.

[19]   Wang, J., Chu, H. and Li, Y. (2008) Why Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Can be Dispersed in Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids. ACS Nano, 2, 2540-2546.

[20]   Casey, A., Farrell, G.F., McNamara, M., Byrne, H.J. and Chambers, G. (2005) Interaction of Carbon Nanotubes with Sugar Complexes. Synthetic Metals, 153, 357-360.

[21]   Rondeau, C., Defer, D., Leboeuf, E. and Lahaye, M. (2008) Assessment of Cell Wall Porosity in Arabidopsis thaliana by NMR Spectroscopy. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 42, 83-92.

[22]   Woehlecke, H. and Ehwald, R. (1995) Characterization of Size-Permeation Limits of Cell Walls and Porous Separation Materials by High Performance Size-Exclusion Chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 708, 263-271.

[23]   Liu, Q., Chen, B., Wang, Q., Shi, X., Xiao, Z., Lin, J. and Fang, X. (2009) Carbon Nanotubes as Molecular Transporters for Walled Plant Cells. Nano Letters, 9, 1007-1010.

[24]   Shen, C.X., Zhang, Q.F., Li, J., Bi, F.C. and Yao, N. (2010) Induction of Programmed Cell Death in Arabidopsis and Rice by Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes. American Journal of Botany, 97, 1-8.

[25]   González, P., Fernández, R., Coronado, M.J., Corredor, E., Testillano, P.S., Risueño, M.C., Marquina, C., Ibarra, M.R., Rubiales, D. and Pérez, L. (2008) Nanoparticles as Smart Treatment Delivery Systems in Plants: Assessment of Different Techniques of Microscopy for Their Visualization in Plant Tissues. Annals of Botany, 101, 187-195.

[26]   Corredor, E., Testillano, P., Coronado, M., González, P., Fernández, R., Marquina, C., Ibarra, R., De la Fuente, J., Rubiales, D., Pérez-de-Luque, A. and Risueño, M. (2009) Nanoparticle Penetration and Transport in Living Pumpkin Plants: In Situ Subcellular Identification. BMC Plant Biology, 9, 45.

[27]   Lacerda, L., Bianco, A., Prato, M. and Kostarelos, K. (2008) Carbon Nanotube Cell Translocation and Delivery of Nucleic Acids in Vitro and in Vivo. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 18, 17-22.

[28]   Kam, N.W., Liu, Z.A. and Dai, H.J. (2006) Carbon Nanotubes as Intracellular Transporters for Proteins and DNA: An Investigation of the Uptake Mechanism and Pathway. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 45, 577-581.

[29]   Kam, N.W., Liu, Z.A. and Dai, H.J. (2005) Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes via Cleavable Disulfide Bonds for Efficient Intracellular Delivery of siRNA and Potent Gene Silencing. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 127, 12492-12493.

[30]   Basiuk, V.A., Basiuk, E.V., Shishkova, S. and Dubrovsky, J.G. (2013) Systemic Phytotoxic Impact of As-Prepared Carbon Nanotubes in Long-Term Assays: A Case Study of Parodia ayopayana (Cactaceae). Science of Advanced Materials, 5, 1337-1345.

[31]   Basiuk, E.V., Ochoa-Olmos, O.E. and De la Mora-Estrada L.F. (2011) Ecotoxicological Effects of Carbon Nanomaterials on Algae, Fungi and Plants. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 11, 3016-3038.

[32]   Navarro, E., Baun, A., Behra, R., Hartmann, N.B., Filser, J., Miao, A.J., Quigg, A., Santschi, P.H. and Sigg, L. (2008) Environmental Behavior and Ecotoxicity of Engineered Nanoparticles to Algae Plants and Fungi. Ecotoxicology, 17, 372-386.