AiM  Vol.4 No.15 , November 2014
Winter and Summer Evaluation of Bacteriological Water Quality at Recreational Beaches along Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico
ABSTRACT
Water bacteriological qualities of 22 recreational beaches in Ensenada Bay, Baja California, Mexico were analyzed during the summer and winter of 2008. Total and fecal coliforms as well as enterococci bacteria were used as pollution indicators. Results showed that bacteria concentrations were higher in winter than summer, associated with Southern California rainy season. Bacteria loads in winter exceeded both the daily and monthly standards showing a clear effect of storm water runoff in the quality of Todos Santos Bay recreational beaches. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between bacteria concentration during summer and winter. The general behavior of the indicators based on daily and monthly standards from high to low was enterococci > FC > TC> total/fecal ratio. Water discharged from 3 sewage treatment plants were responsible for the pollution observed at stations, when the uptake capacity of plants exceeded the storage. During summer pollution was due to non-programmed discharges from sewage treatment plants.

Cite this paper
Orozco-Borbón, M. , Gutiérrez-Galindo, E. , Navarro-Olache, L. , Muñoz-Barbosa, A. , Macías-Zamora, V. and Pérez-Capetillo, C. (2014) Winter and Summer Evaluation of Bacteriological Water Quality at Recreational Beaches along Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico. Advances in Microbiology, 4, 1132-1139. doi: 10.4236/aim.2014.415123.
References
[1]   Cabelli, V.J., Dufour, A.P., McCabe, L.J. and Levin, M.A. (1982) Swimming-Associated Gastroenteritis and Water Quality. American Journal of Epidemiology, 115, 606-616.

[2]   Pruss, A. (1998) Review of Epidemiological Studies on Health Effects from Exposure to Recreational Water. International Journal of Epidemiology, 27, 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/27.1.1

[3]   Haile, R.W., Witte, J.S., Gold, M., Cressey, R., McGee, C., Millikan, R.C., Glasser, A., Harawa, N., Ervin, C., Harmon, P., Harper, J., Dermand, J., Alamillo, J., Barrett, K., Nides, M. and Wang G. (1999) The Health Effects of Swimming in Ocean Water Contaminated by Storm Drain Runoff. Epidemiology, 10, 355-363.http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001648-199907000-00004

[4]   Salas, H.J. (2000) Historia y aplicación de normas microbiológicas de calidad de agua en el medio marino. Centro Panamericano de Ingeniería Sanitaria y Ciencias del Ambiente (CEPIS). OPS-OMS. Hojas de Divulgación Técnica, 29, 1-11.

[5]   Seañez-Reyes, R. (2001) Aislamiento de bacteriófagos y su aplicación en la contaminación de la Bahía de Todos Santos. B.C. Tesis de Maestría, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Ensenada.

[6]   Orozco-Borbón, M.V., Rico-Mora, R., Weisberg, S.B., Noble, R.T., Dorsey, J.H., Leecaster, M.K. and McGee, C.D. (2006) Bacteriological Water Quality along the Tijuana-Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico Shoreline. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 52, 1190-1196.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2006.02.005

[7]   Simental-Oceguera, L. and Martínez-Hurtaza, J. (2008) Climate Patterns Governing the Presence and Permanence of Salmonellae in Coastal Areas of Bahia de Todos Santos, Mexico. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74, 5918-5924. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01139-08

[8]   APHA (1995) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 19th Edition, American Public Health Association, New York.

[9]   EPA (2002) Method 1600: Enterococci in Water by Membrane Filtration Using Membrane-Enterococcus Indoxyl-β-D-Glucoside Agar (mE1). United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington DC, 14 p.

[10]   California Ocean Plan (1990) Water Quality Control Plan for Ocean Waters of California. State Water Resources Control Board, Sacramento.

[11]   Noble, R.T., Weisberg, S.B., Leecaster, M.K., McGee, C.D., Dorsey, J.H., Vainik, P. and Orozco-Borbón, V. (2003) Storm Effects on Regional Beach Water Quality along the Southern California Shoreline. Journal of Water and Health, 1, 23-31.

[12]   Programa Integral del Agua de Ensenada (PIAE) (2008) Instituto Municipal deInvestigación y Planeación de Ensenada, B.C. (IMIP), Gobierno del Estado de Baja California. Ensenada, B.C., 22-72.

[13]   Jiang, S., Noble, R. and Chu, W. (2001) Human Adenoviruses and Coliphages in Urban Runoff-Impacted Coastal Waters of Southern California. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67, 179-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.67.1.179-184.2001

[14]   Shiff, K.C., Morton, J. and Weisberg, S.B. (2003) Retrospective Evaluation of Shoreline Water Quality along Santa Monica Bay Beaches. Marine Environmental Research, 56, 245-253.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0141-1136(02)00333-1

[15]   Reeves, R.L., Grant, S.B., Mrse, R.D., Copil-Oancea, C.M., Sanders, B.F. and Boehm, A.B. (2004) Scaling and Management of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Runoff from a Coastal Urban Watershed in Southern California. Environmental Science & Technology, 38, 2637-2648.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es034797g

[16]   Griffith, J.F., Schiff, K.C., Lyon, G.S. and Fuhrman, J.A. (2010) Microbiological Water Quality at Non-Human Influenced Reference Beaches in Southern California during Wet Weather. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60, 500-508. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.11.015

[17]   Segovia-Zavala, J.A. and Orozco-Borbón, M.V. (1986) Calidad bacteriológica del agua de mar en la zona costera noroccidental de Baja California. Ciencias Marinas, 12, 93-102.

[18]   Orozco-Borbón, M.V., Segovia-Zavala, J.A., Delgadillo-Hinojosa, F. and Muñoz-Barbosa, A. (1994) Estudio bacterio-lógico de agua de mar para el cultivo de moluscos bivalvos en Baja California. Ciencias Marinas, 20, 183-198.

[19]   Vargas, E. (2011) Quedó resuelto el problema en planta de El Naranjo. Ensenada.net.
http://www.ensenada.net/noticias/nota.php?ld=21892

[20]   Pedraza, I. (2012) Aumenta contaminación en playas de Ensenada. Periódico El Universal.
http://www.eluniversalcom.mx/notas/837967.html

[21]   Noble, R.T., Moore, D.F., Leecaster, M.K., McGee, C.D. and Weisberg, S.B. (2003) Comparison of Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform and Enterococcus Bacterial Indicator Response for Ocean Recreational Water Quality Testing. Water Research, 37, 1637-1643. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00496-7

[22]   Hartke, A., Lemarinier, S., Pichereau, V. and Auffray, Y. (2002) Survival of Enterococcus faecalis in Seawater Microcosms Is Limited in the Presence of Bacterivorous Zooflagellates. Current Microbiology, 44, 329-335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-001-0018-4

 
 
Top