Back
 JEP  Vol.5 No.16 , November 2014
Drovers’ Roads as Environmental Assets: Use Value for Recreational Purposes of the Cañada Real del Reino de Valencia
Abstract: Drovers’ roads have been a key part of transhumant pastoralism for decades, being the routes on which to drive livestock, and it is for this reason that they are protected by Spanish law, specifically Law 3/1995, by which they were declared public goods. At the same time, their particular nature also means that they also possess characteristics which are typical of other types of public goods; therefore, in order to estimate their value, market-based techniques cannot be used. This study centres on a project for the restoration for recreational purposes of the Ca?ada Real del Reino de Valencia, a drovers’ road in the Valencia region of Spain. In order to establish its economic value, the contingent valuation method has been used: this is the most commonly used technique for the valuation of non-market goods and it is widely attested in the economic literature, being used in a large number of different settings. Assuming a useful life of 25 years and a social discount rate of 5%, the value of the Ca?ada Real del Reino de Valencia has been estimated at �41.82 million, indicating the value which society places on the drovers’ road. This estimation may assist in improving the efficiency of public spending policies.
Cite this paper: Guaita-Pradas, I. and Río, B. (2014) Drovers’ Roads as Environmental Assets: Use Value for Recreational Purposes of the Cañada Real del Reino de Valencia. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5, 1495-1508. doi: 10.4236/jep.2014.516142.
References

[1]   Azqueta, D. and Sotelsek, D. (2007) Valuing Nature: From Environmental Impacts to Natural Capital. Ecological Economics, 63, 22-30.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.02.029

[2]   Gomez-Limon, A. and Lucio Fernandez, J.V. (1999) Changes in Use and Landscape Preferences on the Agricultural-Livestock Landscapes of the Central Iberian Peninsula (Madrid, Spain). Landscape and Urban Planning, 44, 165-175.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(99)00020-1

[3]   Rodriguez, P. (2004) Transhumance; Culture, Drovers’ Road and Travels. Edilesa, Leon.

[4]   Ruiz, M. and Ruiz, J.P. (1986) Ecological History of Transhumance in Spain. Biological Conservation, 37, 73-86.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(86)90035-2

[5]   Mugica, M., De Lucio, J.V. and Pinedo, F.E. (1996) The Madrid Ecological Network. In: Nowiciki, P., Bennett, G., Middelton, D., Rientjes, S. and Wolters, R., Eds., Perspectives on Ecological Networks, European Centre for Nature Conservation, Tilburg, 49-59.

[6]   Cazorla Montero, A., de los Rios Carmenado, I., AlierGandaras, J.L. and Merino Garcia J. (2004) Classification Model and Valuation of a Multifunctional Network of Cattle Routes: Application to Two Subregions in Madrid. Estudios Geograficos, 65, 255-185.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/egeogr.2004.i255.185

[7]   de Miguel Beascoechea, J.E. (1997) Cowpath, Roads and Trails. En El Campo y el Medio Ambiente: Un Futuro en Armonia. Banco Central Hispano, 219-234.

[8]   Collantes Gutierrez, F. (2003) Livestock Mountain in Spain, 1865-2000: History Accumulated a Comparative Advantage. Agrarian History, 31, 141-167.

[9]   Alberini, A. and Kahn, J.R. (2006) Handbook on Contingent Valuation. Edwar Elgar Publishing, Masachusetts.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4337/9781845427917

[10]   Solow, R.M. (1974) The Economics of Resources or the Resources of Economics. American Economic Review, 64, 1-14.

[11]   Kristrom, B. (1997) Spike Models in Contingent Valuation. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 79, 1013-1023.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1244440

[12]   Carson, R.T. (2002) Contingent Valuation: A Comprehensive Bibliography and History. Edward Elgar, Northampton.

[13]   Carson, R.T., Mitchell, R.C., Hanemann, N., Kopp, R.T., Presser, S. and Ruud, P.A. (2003) Contingent Valuation and Loss Passive Use: Damage from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Environmental and Resource Economics, 25, 257-286.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1024486702104

[14]   Wittington, D. (2002) Improving the Performance of Contingent Valuation Studies in Developing Countries. Environmental and Resource Economics, 22, 323-367.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1015575517927

[15]   Haab, T.C. and McConell, K.E. (2002) Valuing Environmental and Natural Resources: The Econometrics of Non-Market Valuation. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham.

[16]   Mitchell, R.C. and Carson, R.T. (1989) Using Surveys to Value Public Goods: The Contingent Valuation Method. Resources for the Future, Washington DC.

[17]   Cummings, R.G., Brookshire, D.S. and Schulze, W.D. (1986) Valuing Environmental Goods: A State of the Arts Assessment of the Contingent Valuation Method. Roweman and Allanheld, Totowa.

[18]   Desvousges, W.H., Johnson, F.R., Dunford, R.W., Hudson, S.P. and Wilson, N. (1993) Measuring Natural Resource Damages with Contingent Valuation: Test of Validity and Reliability. In: Hausman, J.A., Ed., Contingent Valuation: A Critical Assessment, North-Holand, Amsterdam.

[19]   Hanemann, W.M. (1984) Welfare Evaluations in Contingent Valuation Experiment with Discrete Responses. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 66, 332-341.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1240800

[20]   Diamond, P.A. and Hausman, J.A. (1994) Contingent Valuation: Is Some Number Better than No Number? Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8, 45-64.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/jep.8.4.45

[21]   Venkatachalam, L. (2004) The Contingent Valuation Method: A Review. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 24, 89-124.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0195-9255(03)00138-0

[22]   Hausman, J. (2012) Contingent Valuation: From Dubious to Hopeless. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 26, 43-56.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/jep.26.4.43

[23]   Portney, P.R. (1994) The Contingent Valuation Debate: Why Economist Should Care. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8, 3-17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/jep.8.4.3

[24]   Bateman, I., Willis, K. and Garrod, G. (1994) Consistency between Contingent Valuation Estimates: A Comparison of Two Studies of UK National Parks. Regional Studies, 28, 457-474.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00343409412331348396

[25]   Del Saz Salazar, S., Pérez Pérez, L. and Barreiro Hurlé, J. (1998) Contingent Valuation and Protection of Natural Areas. Revista Valenciana D’Estudis Autonomics Economics, 23, 355-371.

[26]   Bengochea-Morancho, A., Fuertes-Eugenio, A.M. and del Saz-Salazar, S. (2005) A Comparison of Empirical Models Used to Infer the Willingness to Pay in Contingent Valuation. Empirical Economics, 30, 235-244.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00181-005-0236-x

[27]   Campos, P., Oviedo, J.L., Caparros, A., Huntsinger, L. and Coelho, I. (2009) Contingent Valuation of Woodland-Owner Private Amenities in Spain, Portugal, and California. Rangeland Ecology & Management, 62, 240-252.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2111/08-178R2.1

[28]   Lopez-Mosquera, N. and Sanchez, M. (2011) The Influence of Personal Values in the Economic-Use Valuation of Peri-Urban Green Spaces: An Application of the Means-End Chain Theory. Tourism Management, 32, 875-889.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2010.08.003

[29]   Morris, J., Colombo, S., Agus, A., Stacey, K., Parsons, D., Brawn, M. and Hanley, N. (2009) The Value of Public Rights of Way: A Choice Experiment in Bedfordshire, England. Landscape and Urban Planning, 93, 83-91.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2009.06.007

[30]   Arrow, K., Solow, R., Portney, P., Leamer, E.E., Radner, R. and Schuman, H. (1993) Report of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Panel on Contingent Valuation. Federal Register.

[31]   Johnson, B.K. and Whitehead, J.C. (2000) Value of Public Good from Sports Stadiums: The CVM Approach. Contemporary Economic Policy, 18, 48-58.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-7287.2000.tb00005.x

[32]   Calia, P. and Strazzera, E. (2001) A Sample Selection Model for Protest Responses in Contingent Valuation Analyses. Statistica Environment, Note di Lavoro Fondacione Eni Enrico Mattel, 55/99.

[33]   Eklof, J. and Karlsson, S. (1997) Testing and Correcting for Sample Selection Bias in Discrete Choice Contingent Valuation Studies. Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 171, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm. Revised 23 June 1999.

[34]   Bishop, R.C. and Heberlein, T.A. (1979) Measuring Values of Extra-Market Goods: Are Indirect Measures Biased? American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 61, 926-930.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3180348

[35]   Cooper, J.C. (1993) Optimal Bid Selection for Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation Surveys. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 24, 25-40.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jeem.1993.1002

[36]   Schlapfer, F. (2008) Contingent Valuation: A New Perspective. Ecological Economics, 64, 729-740.

[37]   del Saz Salazar, S. and Garcia Menéndez, L. (2003) The Nonmarket Benefits to Redeveloping Areas for Recreational Purposes: The Case of Castellon, Spain. Environment and Planning A, 35, 2115-2129.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a364

[38]   Hanley, N., Kristrom, B. and Shogren, J. (2009) Coherent Arbitrariness: On Value Uncertainty for Environmental Goods. Land Economics, 85, 41-50.

[39]   Bateman, I.J., Day, B.H., Georgiou, S. and Lake, I. (2006) The Aggregation of Environmental Benefit Values: Welfare Measures, Distance Decay ant Total WTP. Ecological Economics, 60, 450-460.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2006.04.003

[40]   Loomis, J.B. (2000) Vertically Summing Public Good Demand Curves: An Empirical Comparison of Economic versus Political Jurisdictions. Land Economics, 76, 312-321.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3147231

[41]   Newel, R.G. and Pizer, W.A. (2003) Discounting the Distant Future: How Much Do Uncertain Rates Increase Valuations? Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 46, 52-71.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0095-0696(02)00031-1

 
 
Top