ACS  Vol.4 No.5 , December 2014
Spatial and Temporal Variability of Total Column Ozone over the Indian Subcontinent: A Study Based on Nimbus-7 TOMS Satellite
ABSTRACT
The distribution and variability of ozone is very important to the atmospheric thermal structures, and it can exert their greater influence on climate. Present study is based on Nimbus-7 TOMS overpass column ozone for a period of 14 years (1979-1992) over twelve selected Indian stations from south to north latitude and it explores the spatial and temporal variability of Total Column Ozone (TCO). For this investigation an advanced statistical methods such as Factor Analysis and Morlet wavelet transform are employed. Total column ozone variability over these stations is grouped into two clusters (Eigen value greater than 1) by the Multivariate Factor analysis. It is found that the Group I stations shows the same nature of variability mainly due the first factor as the primarily loading and whereas as the Group II stations shows the same nature of variability due to second factor as the primary loading. The correlation value of TCO decreases from 0.9 to 0.32 as we move from south to north stations (lower latitude to higher latitude). The total column ozone over tropical stations is maximum during monsoon season with peak in the month of June and that for the higher latitude stations is during the pre-monsoon season. Annual average of TCO for tropical stations is about 265 DU and that for subtropical stations is about 280 DU and a difference of 15 DU is noted in the annual average of TCO between tropical and subtropical stations. A large reduction in TCO is noted over the Indian subcontinent in the year 1985, the same year in which the ozone hole over Antarctica was discovered. It is also found that two prominent oscillations are present in total column ozone one with a periodicity of 16 to18 months and other with 28 to 32 months (QBO periodicity) apart from the annual oscillations. These oscillations are found to be significant at above 95% level of confidence when tested with Power Spectrum method. Tropical TCO shows high concentration during the westerly phase and low concentration during the easterly phase of the equatorial stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation.

Cite this paper
Madhu, V. (2014) Spatial and Temporal Variability of Total Column Ozone over the Indian Subcontinent: A Study Based on Nimbus-7 TOMS Satellite. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 4, 884-898. doi: 10.4236/acs.2014.45078.
References
[1]   Lacis, A.A., Wuebbles, D.J. and Logan, J.A. (1990) Radiative Forcing of Climate by Changes in the Vertical Distribu- tion of Ozone. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95, 9971-9981.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JD095iD07p09971

[2]   Forster, P. and Shine, K. (1997) Radiative Forcing and Temperature Trends from Stratospheric Ozone Changes. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 10841-10855. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/96JD03510

[3]   Staehelin, J., Kegel, R. and Harris, N.R.P. (1998) Trend Analysis of Homogenized Total Ozone Series of Arosa (CH), 1926-1996. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 8389-8399.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/97JD03650

[4]   Ziemke, J.R., Chandra, S., McPeters, R.D. and Newman, P.A. (1997) Dynamical Proxies of Column Ozone with Applications to Global Trend Models. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 6117-6129.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/96JD03783

[5]   Vaughan, G. and Price, J.D. (1991) On the Relation between Total Ozone and Meteorology. Quarterly Journal of Ro- yal Meteorological Society, 117, 1281-1298.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/qj.49711750208

[6]   Schubert, S.D. and Munteanu, M.-J. (1988) An Analysis of Tropopause Pressure and Total Ozone Correlations. Month- ly Weather Review, 116, 569-582.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1988)116<0569:AAOTPA>2.0.CO;2

[7]   Steinbrecht, W., Claude, H., Köhler, U. and Hoinka, K.P. (1998) Correlations between Tropopause Height and Total Ozone: Implications for Long-Term Changes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984-2012), 103, 19183- 19192.

[8]   Appenzeller, C., Weiss, A. and Staehelin, J. (2000) North Atlantic Oscillation Modulates Total Ozone Winter Trends. Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 1131-1134.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/1999GL010854

[9]   Herman, J.R. and Larko, D. (1994) Nimbus-7/TOMS-November 1, 1978 to May 6, 1993: Low Ozone Amounts During 1992-1993 from Nimbus-7 and Meteor-3 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer. Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, 3483-3496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/93JD02594

[10]   Randel, W.J. and Cobb, J.B. (1994) Coherent Variations of Monthly Mean Total Ozone and Lower Stratospheric Temperature. Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, 5433-5447.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/93JD03454

[11]   Brasseur, G.P., Hauglustaine, D.A., Walters, S., Rasch, P.J., Müller, J.-F., Granier, C. and Tie, X.X. (1998) MOZART: A Global Chemical Transport Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers: Model Description. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 28265-28289.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/98JD02397

[12]   Willett, H.C. (1962) The Relationship of Total Atmospheric Ozone to the Sunspot Cycle. Journal of Geophysical Research, 67, 661-670.

[13]   Angell, J.K. (1989) On the Relation between Atmospheric Ozone and Sunspot Number. Journal of Climate, 2, 1404-1416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1989)002<1404:OTRBAO>2.0.CO;2

[14]   Zerefos, C.S., Tourpali, K., Bojkov, B.R. and Balis, D.S. (1997) Solar Activity—Total Column Ozone Relationship: Observations and Model Studies with Heterogeneous Chemistry. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 1561-1569. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/96JD02395

[15]   Shindell, D., Rind, D., Balachandran, N., Lean, J. and Lonergan, P. (1999) Solar Cycle Variability, Ozone, and Climate. Science, 284, 305-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.284.5412.305

[16]   Zerefos, C.S., Bais, A.P., Ziomas, I.C. and Bojkov, R.D. (1992) On the Relation and Elnino-Southern Oscillation in the Revised Dobson Total Ozone Records. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, 10135-10144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/92JD00508

[17]   Bowman, K.P. (1989) Global Patterns of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in Total Ozone. Journal of Atmospheric Science, 46, 3328-3343.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1989)046<3328:GPOTQB>2.0.CO;2

[18]   Shiotini, M. (1992) Annual Quasi-Biennial and El-Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Time Scale Variation in Equatorial Total Ozone. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, 7625-7633.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/92JD00530

[19]   Thompson, A.M. and Hudson, R.D. (2000) Tropical Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) Maps from Nimbus7 and Earth Probe TOMS by the Modified Residual Method: Evaluation with Sondes, ENSO Signal and Trends from Atlantic Regional Time Series. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, 26961-26975.

[20]   Hood, L. (1997) The Solar Cycle Variation of Total Ozone: Dynamical Forcing on the Lower Stratosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 1355-1370.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/96JD00210

[21]   Martin, R.V., Jacob, D.J., Logan, J.A., Ziemko, J.R. and Washington, R. (2000) Detection of Lightening Influence on Tropical Tropospheric Ozone. Geophysical Research Letterers, 27, 1639-1642.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/1999GL011181

[22]   Ziemke, J.R. and Chandra, S. (1999) Seasonal and Interannual Variabilities in Tropical Tropospheric Ozone. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 21425-21442.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/1999JD900277

[23]   Mani, A. and Sreedharan, C.R. (1973) Studies of Variations in the Vertical Ozone Profiles over India. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 108, 1180-1191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00881070

[24]   Tiwari, V.S. (1992) Ozone Variations over Tropics: Trends Reveled from Dobson Measurements over Indian Stations. Mausam, 43, 65-70.

[25]   Kundu, N. and Jain, M. (1993) Total Ozone Trends over Low Latitude Indian Stations. Geophysical Research Letters, 20, 2881-2883. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/93GL03306

[26]   Chakrabarty, D.K., Peshin, S.K., Pandya, K.V. and Shah, N.C. (1998) Long-Term Trend of Ozone Column over the Indian Region. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 19245-19251.

[27]   Jadin, E.A. (1998) Interannual Variability of Total Ozone and Stratospheric Angular Momentum. International Journal of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 1.
http://elpub.wdcb.ru/journals/ijga/v01/gai97142/gai97142.htm

[28]   Chandra, S., Ziemke, J.R., Bhartia, P.K. and Martin, R.V. (2002) Tropical Tropospheric Ozone: Implications for Dynamics and Biomass Burning. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, ACH 3-1-ACH 3-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000447

[29]   McPeters, R.D. and Labour, G.C. (1996) An Assessment of Accuracy of 14.5 Years of Nimbus 7 TOMS Version & Ozone Data by Comparison with the Dobson Network. Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 3695-3698. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/96GL03539

[30]   Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., et al. (1996) The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society, 77, 437-471.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2

[31]   Carter, M.M. and Elsner, J.B. (1996) Convective Rainfall Regions of Puerto Rico. International Journal of Climatology, 16, 1033-1043.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0088(199609)16:9<1033::AID-JOC77>3.0.CO;2-H

[32]   Kaplunovsky, A.S. (2005) Factor Analysis in Environmental Studies. HAIT Journal of Science and Engineering B, 2, 54-94.

[33]   Simon, A. and Mohankumar, K. (2004) Spatial Variability and Rainfall Characteristics of Kerala. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science (Earth Planetary Sciences), 113, 211-221.
http://www.ias.ac.in/jess/june2004/Esb1559.pdf

[34]   Morlet, J.S. (1983) Sampling Theory and Wave Propagation. In: Chen, C.H., Ed., Issue in Acoustics Signals—Image Processing and Recognition, NATO ASI Series, Vol. 1, Springer-Verlag, Beilin, 233-261.

[35]   Brewer, A.M. (1949) Evidence for a World Circulation Provided by the Measurements of Helium and Water Vapor Distribution in the Stratosphere. Quarterly Journal of Royal Meteorological Society, 75, 351-363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/qj.49707532603

[36]   Dobson, G.M.B. (1956) Origin and Distribution of the Polyatomic Molecules in the Atmosphere. Proceedings of the Royal Society A, 236, 187-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1956.0127

[37]   Reed, R.J., Campbell, W.J., Rasmusson, L.A. and Rogers, D.G. (1961) Evidence of the Downward-Propagating Annual Wind Reversal in the Equatorial Stratosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, 66, 813-818. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JZ066i003p00813

[38]   Baldwin, M.P., Gray, L.J., Dunkerton, T.J., Hamilton, K., et al. (2001) The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. Review of Geophysics, 39, 179-230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/1999RG000073

[39]   Angel, J.K. (1993) Reexamination of the Relation between Depth of the Antarctic Ozone Hole, and an Equatorial QBO, and SST, 1962-1992. Geophysical Research Letters, 20, 1559-1562.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/93GL01762

[40]   Stolarski, R.S., Bloomfield, P., Mc Peters, R.D. and Herman, J.R. (1991) Total Ozone Trends Deduced from Nimbus 7 TOMS Data. Geophysical Research Letters, 18, 1015-1018.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/91GL01302

[41]   Hess, P.G. and O’Sullivan, D. (1995) A Three-Dimensional Modeling Study of the Extratropical Quasi-Bienniel Oscillation in Ozone. Journal of Atmospheric Science, 52, 1539-1554.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<1539:ATDMSO>2.0.CO;2

[42]   Ramanathan, K.R. (1963) Bi-Annual Variation of Atmospheric Ozone over the Tropics. Quarterly Journal of Royal Meteorological Society, 89, 540-542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/qj.49708938209

[43]   Angel, J.K. and Korshover, J. (1973) Qausi-Biennial and Long-Term Fluctuations in Total Ozone. Monthly Weather Review, 101, 426-443.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1973)101<0426:QALFIT>2.3.CO;2

[44]   Gray, L.J. and Dunkerton, T.J. (1990) The Role of the Seasonal Cycle in the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation of Ozone. Journal of Atmospheric Science, 47, 2429-2451.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1990)047<2429:TROTSC>2.0.CO;2

[45]   Garcia, R. and Solomon, S. (1987) A Possible Relationship between Interannual Variability in Antatctic Ozone and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. Geophysical Research Letters, 14, 848-851.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/GL014i008p00848

 
 
Top