Ellington, C.P. (1984) The Aerodynamics of Hovering Flight. IV. Aerodynamic Mechanisms. Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society B, 305, 79-113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1984.0052
 Dickinson, M.H., Lehmann, F. and Sane, S.P. (1999) Wing Rotation and the Aerodynamic Basis of Insect Flight. Sci- ence, 284, 1954-1960. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.284.5422.1954
 Heathcote, S., Wang, Z. and Gursul, I. (2008) Effect of Spanwise Flexibility on Flapping Wing Propulsion. Journal of Fluids and Structures, 24, 183-199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2007.08.003
 Stewart, E.C., Patil, M.J. and Canfield, R.A. (2014) Aeroelastic Shape Optimization of a Flapping Wing. The 10th AIAA Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Conference, 13-17 January 2014, National Harbor. http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.2014-0469
 Smith, M.J.C., Wilkin, P.J. and Williams, M.H. (1996) The Advantages of an Unsteady Panel Method in Modeling the Aerodynamic Forces on a Rigid Flapping Wings. Journal of Experimental Biology, 199, 1073-1083.
 Fitzgerald, C., Valdez, M. and Balachandran (2011) A Comparison of Computational Models for Fluid-Structure Interaction Studies of Flexible Flapping Wing Systems. The 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Orlando, 4-7 January 2011.
 Yu, C., Ang, H., Chen, Q., et al. (2008) Three-Dimension Unsteady Vortex Lattice Method for Flexible Structure Flapping-Wing Aerial Vehicle. Journal of Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 40, 451-455.
 Mazaheri, K. and Ebrahimi, A. (2011) Experimental Investigation on Aerodynamic Performance of a Flapping Wing Vehicle in Forward Flight. Journal of Fluids and Structures, 27, 586-595. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2011.04.001
 Muniappan, A. (2005) Lift and Thrust Characteristics of Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle(MAV). The 43rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, 10-13 January 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.2005-1055
 Katz, J. and Plotkin, A. (2001) Low-Speed Aerodynamics. 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511810329