Back
 AID  Vol.4 No.4 , December 2014
Larvicidal Properties of Botanical Extracts of Lawsonia inermis against Anopheles stephensi
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the larvicidal activity of Lawsonia inermis against Anopheles stephensi as the main malaria vector in Iran. This study was carried out from February to July 2011. Larvicidal activity of >L. inermis was studied in the range of 4 - 4000 PPM in the laboratory against early and late stages of larvae of An. stephensi. The larvae were reared in the insectarium. The LC50 and LC90 values of the larval stages of An. stephensi were calculated by probit analysis and regression line draw using Microsoft office excel 2003 software. The highest toxic effect of L. inermis was found at 4000 PPM and the lowest at 4 PPM against larval stages I and II. The same result was found against larval stages III and IV. The LC50 and LC90 was found as 413.8 and 3366.3 respectively against larval stages I and II while against late stages found as 696.9 and 3927.7 respectively. This study suggests that L. inermis extract can be used as an alternative larvicidal compound during the IPM programs for the An. stephensi control. It is recommended to investigate the competency of other similar plants to malaria control.
Cite this paper: Bakhshi, H. , Abai, M. , Amin, G. , Zolfi, R. , Pirmohammadi, M. , Bakhshi, A. , Taghinezhad, F. and Moosa-Kazemi, S. (2014) Larvicidal Properties of Botanical Extracts of Lawsonia inermis against Anopheles stephensi. Advances in Infectious Diseases, 4, 178-185. doi: 10.4236/aid.2014.44025.
References

[1]   Gutsevich, A.V (1943) On the Mosquitoes of North Iran. Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences, 40, 123-125.

[2]   Manouchehri, A., Zaim, M. and Emadi, A. (1992) A Review of Malaria in Iran. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 8, 381-385.

[3]   Zahirnia, A.H., Vatandoost, H., Nateghpour, M. and Djavadian, E. (1998) Insecticide Resistance/Susceptibility Monitoring in Anopheles pulcherrimus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ghasreghand district, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran. Journal of Hakim, 2, 97-106.

[4]   Vatandoost, H. (2001) Irritability Level of Anopheles stephensi to Different Insecticides in Iran. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 30, 27-30.

[5]   Zahirnia, A., Taherkhani, H. and Vatandoost, H. (2001) Observation of Malaria Sporozoite in Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ghasreghand District, Sistan and Baluchistan Province. Journal of Hakim, 4, 149-153.

[6]   Naddaf, S., Oshaghi, M.A., Vatandoost, H. and Assmar, M. (2003) Molecular Characterization of Anopheles fluviatilis Species Complex in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 9, 257-265.

[7]   Enayati, A., Vatandoost, H., Ladonni, H., Townson, H. and Hemingway, J. (2003) Molecular Evidence for a kdr-Like Pyrethroid Resistance Mechanism in the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 17, 138-144.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2915.2003.00418.x

[8]   Vatandoost, H. and Vaziri, V. (2004) Larvicidal Activity of a Neem Tree Extract (Neemarin) against Mosquito Larvae in the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health Journal, 10, 573-581.

[9]   Vatandoost, H., Mashayekhi, M., Abaie, M.R., Aflatoonian, M., Hanafi-Bojd, A. and Sharifi, I. (2005) Monitoring of Insecticides Resistance in Main Malaria Vectors in a Malarious Area of Kahnooj District, Kerman Province, Southeastern Iran. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, 42, 100-108.

[10]   Hanafi-Bojd, A.A., Vatandoost, H. and Jafari, R. (2006) Susceptibility Status of Anopheles dthali and An. fluviatilis to Commonly Used Larvicides in an Endemic Focus of Malaria, Southern Iran. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, 43, 34-38.

[11]   Davari, B., Vatandoost, H., Oshaghi, M.A., Ladonni, H., Enayati, A., Shaeghi, M., Basseri, H.R., Rasi, Y. and Hanafi-Bojd, A.A. (2007) Selection of Anopheles stephensi with DDT and Dieldrin and Cross-Resistance Spectrum to Pyrethroids and Fipronil. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 89, 97-103.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2007.04.003

[12]   Kazemi, S.H., Karimian, F. and Davari, B. (2010) Culicinae Mosquitoes in Sanandaj County, Kurdistan Province, Wes- tern Iran. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, 47, 103-107.

[13]   Krishnan, K.S. (1961) Vectors of Malaria in India (Delhi). National Society of India for Malaria and Other Mosquito- Borne Disease, 1, 27-37.

[14]   Kiszewski, A., Mellinger, A., Spielman, A., Malaney, P., Sachs, S.E. and Sachs, J. (2004) A Global Index Representing the Stability of Malaria Transmission. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 70, 486-498.

[15]   Macdonald, G. (1957) The Epidemiology and Control of Malaria. Oxford University Press, London, 201 p.

[16]   Takken, W. and Knols, B.G. (1999) Odor-Mediated Behavior of Afrotropical Malaria Mosquitoes. Annual Review of Entomology, 44, 131-157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.44.1.131

[17]   Bowen, M.F. (1991) The Sensory Physiology of Host-Seeking Behavior in Mosquitoes. Annual Review of Entomology, 36, 139-158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.36.010191.001035

[18]   Burkot, T.R. (1988) Non-Random Host Selection by Anopheline Mosquitoes. Parasitology Today, 4, 156-162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0169-4758(88)90151-2

[19]   Shariat, S. (1989) Analysis and Identification of Medicinal Plants Content. Isfahan Mashal Publications, Isfahan, 1-56.( In Persian)

[20]   Zrgari, A. (1990) Medical Plants. Tehran University Publications, Tehran, 4, 24-52.

[21]   Zargari, A. (1990) Treatment with Plants, Pharmacogenosis. Tehran University Publications, Tehran, 2, 7-67. ( In Persian)

[22]   Amin, G.R. (1991) Popular Medicinal Plants of Iran. Iranian Research Institute of Medicinal Plants, Tehran, 1-66. ( In Persian)

[23]   Rojhan, M.S. (1992) Cure with Medicinal Plants. Tehran Khayam Publications, Tehran, 5-82. ( In Persian)

[24]   Shariat, S. (1992) Extract and Extraction of the Effective Compounds of the Plants and the Ways of the Identifications and Evaluation of Them. Mani Publications, Isfahan, 14-16. ( In Persian)

[25]   Malekzadeh, F. (1968) Antimicrobial Activity of Lawsonia inermis L. Applied Microbiology, 16, 663-664.

[26]   Singh, V.K. and Pandey, D.K. (1988) Fungitoxic Studies on Bark Extract of Lawsonia inermis against Ringworm Fungi. Hindustan Antibiotics Bulletin, 31, 32-35.

[27]   Sharma, V. (1990) Tuberculostatic Activity of Henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn). Tubercle, 71, 293-295.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0041-3879(90)90044-9

[28]   Bhuvaneswari, K., Poongothai, S.G., Kuruvilla, A. and Raju, B.A. (2002) Inhibitory Concentrations of Lawsonia inermis Dry Powder for Urinary Pathogens. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 34, 260-263.

[29]   Babu, P.D. and Subhasree, R. (2009) Antimicrobial Activities of Lawsonia inermis-A Review. Academic Journal of Plant Sciences, 2, 231-232.

[30]   Al-Arnaoutt, S. and Al-Arnaoutt, A.K. (1987) In Al-Jozieh IK Prophetic Medicine. Al-Risala Publishing, Beirut.

[31]   Papageorgiou, V.P., Assimopoulou, A.N., Couladouros, E.A., Hepworth, D. and Nicolaou, K. (1999) The Chemistry and Biology of Alkannin, Shikonin, and Related Naphthazarin Natural Products. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 38, 270-301.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-3773(19990201)38:3<270::AID-ANIE270>3.0.CO;2-0

[32]   Fatahi, B.A., Fallahzadeh, H., Mosadegh, M.H. and Pharm, D. (2008) Effectiveness of Lawsonia inermis Extract on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesion in BALB/c Mice. Journal of Kerman University of Medical Science, 15, 329-335.

[33]   Carnevale, P. (1995) Vector Control, Perspectives and Realities. Medical and Tropical Medicine (Mars), 55, 56-65.

[34]   Madhu, S., Shaukath, A. and Vijayan, V. (2010) Efficacy of Bioactive Compounds from Curcuma aromatica against Mosquito Larvae. Acta tropica, 113, 7-11.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2009.08.023

[35]   Elango, G., Rahuman, A.A., Bagavan, A., Kamaraj, C., Zahir, A.A., Rajakumar, G., Marimuthu, S. and Santhoshkumar, T. (2010) Efficacy of Botanical Extracts against Japanese Encephalitis Vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Parasitology Research, 106, 481-492.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-009-1690-8

[36]   Kihampa, C., Joseph, C.C., Nkunya, M.H., Magesa, S.M., Hassanali, A., Heydenreich, M. and Kleinpeter, E. (2009) Larvicidal and IGR Activity of Extract of Tanzanian Plants against Malaria Vector Mosquitoes. Journal of Vector Borne Disese, 46, 145-152.

[37]   Porto, K.R., Roel, A.R., Silva, M.M., Coelho, R.M., Scheleder, E.J. and Jeller, A.H. (2008) Larvicidal Activity of Anacardium humile Saint Hill Oil on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera, Culicidae). Revista da Sociedad Brasila Medician Tropical, 41, 586-589.(In Portuguese)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0037-86822008000600008

[38]   Quinn, B.P., Bernier, U.R. and Booth, M.M. (2007) Identification of Compounds from Etonia Rosemary (Conradina etonia). Journal of Chromatography A, 1160, 306-310.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2007.05.060

[39]   El-Sheikh, T. (2009) Field Evaluation of Repellency Effect of Some Plant Extracts against Mosquitoes in Egypt. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 39, 59-72.

[40]   Jhumur, U.S., Dötterl, S. and Jürgens, A. (2008) Floral Odors of Silene otites: Their Variability and Attractiveness to Mosquitoes. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 34, 14-25.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10886-007-9392-0

[41]   Yaghoobi-Ershadi, M.R., Akhavan, A.A., Jahanifard, E., Vatandoost, H., Amin, Gh., Moosavi, L., Zahraei Ramazani, A.R., Abdoli, H. and Arandian, M.H. (2006) Repellency Effect of Myrtle Essential Oil and DEET against Phlebotomus papatasi, under Laboratory Conditions. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 35, 7-13.

[42]   Fujii, Y., Parvez, S.S., Parvez, M., Ohmae, Y. and Iida, O. (2003) Screening of 239 Medicinal Plant Species for Allelopathic Activity Using the Sandwich Method. Weed Biology and Management, 3, 233-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1444-6162.2003.00111.x

[43]   Gupta, S., Handa, S.K. and Sharma, K.K. (1998) A New Spray Reagent for the Detection of Synthetic Pyrethroids Containing a Nitrile Group on Thin-Layer Plates. Talanta, 45, 1111-1114.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0039-9140(97)00211-7

[44]   WHO (1981) Instructions for Determining the Susceptibility or Resistance of Adult Mosquitos to Organochlorine, Organophosphate and Carbamate Insecticides-Diagnostic Test. WHO/VBC, 1, 806-881.

[45]   WHO (1981) Instructions for Determining the Susceptibility or Resistance of Mosquito Larvae to Insecticides. WHO/ VBC, 1, 807-881.

[46]   Zar Jerrold, H. (1996) Biostatistical Analysis. 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 662 p.

[47]   Pluess, B., Tanser, F.C., Lengeler, C. and Sharp, B.L. (2010) Indoor Residual Spraying for Preventing Malaria. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4, CD006657.

[48]   Faghih, M. (1969) Malarialogy and Malaria Eradication. Tehran University Press, Tehran.

[49]   Zaim, M. and Javaherian, Z. (1991) Occurrence of Anopheles culicifacies Species A in Iran. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 7, 324-326.

[50]   Eshghy, N. (1977) Anopheles multicolor Cambouliu and Its Role in the Transmission of Malaria in Iran. Journal of the Entomological Society of Iran, 4, 87-88.

[51]   Ghaffari, A.N. (1955) The Classification of Culicidae (Diptera: Nematocera): The Study of Culex linneanues in Iran. School of Medicine, Tehran University, Iran, 189.

[52]   Govindarajan, M. and Sivakumar, R. (2011) Mosquito Adulticidal and Repellent Activities of Botanical Extracts against Malarial Vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 4, 941-947. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60223-X

 
 
Top