OJPed  Vol.4 No.4 , December 2014
Fever among Children with Sickle-Cell Disease: Findings from the General Pediatric Ward of the Owendo Pediatric Hospital in Libreville, Gabon
Abstract: Sickle-cell disease (SCD) represents a substantial public health problem in Gabon. Fever is one of the principal reasons for the hospitalization of children afflicted by major sickle-cell disorder, since it can be a clinical reflection of severe infections that have the potential to become life threatening. Objectives: Identification of the main causes of fever in children with SCD in our clinical setting, with the aim of optimizing treatments. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all the medical files for children with SCD that were admitted to our ward, over a two year period, due to fever (>38.5°C) lasting more than 24 hours. Only those files that contained at least the following five fundamental medical examinations were retained for further evaluation: Complete Blood Count (CBC), blood smear, blood culture, urine culture and chest X-ray. Out of a total of 118 admissions (103 patients), 87 (73.7%) were due to the incidence of fever. The medical files of 11 patients were deemed to be unusable. Seventy-six episodes of fever were observed among 69 children, of which 42 were male and 27 female (sex ratio of 1.5). Among these, seven (10%) were admitted twice. Results: The age groups that were most affected included 12 - 18 year-olds (30 cases: 43.5%) and 6 - 12 year-olds (26 cases: 37.7%). The most common accompanying symptoms were bone and joint pain (43.4%), asthenia (22.4%), cough (19.7%), vomiting (17%) and headache (15.8%). The specific cause of the fever could not be pinpointed in 29 cases (38.1%). Aside from these cases, the main causes of fever were malaria (30.3%) and bronchopulmonary infections (22.4%). The white blood cell count was >20,000/mm3 in 47% of respiratory infections, 43.5% of the cases involving malaria and 55.2% of cases of fever with unknown cause. Hemoglobin levels were <5g/dl for 52.2% of the cases involving malaria and 22.6% for those of unknown origin. For four patients, all less than 10 years of age, the disease was fatal. Conclusion: For the majority of fever episodes, the underlying cause could not be determined. Nonetheless, malaria was identified as one of the principal identifiable causes of fever among children with SDC in Libreville. Treatment for malaria upon admission, and the promotion of preventative measures, therefore seems to be appropriate for our clinical setting. In light of the large number of unresolved cases, systematic prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics may also be called for.
Cite this paper: Koko, J. , Gahouma, D. , Ategbo, S. , Seilhan, C. , Pambou, A. and Moussavou, A. (2014) Fever among Children with Sickle-Cell Disease: Findings from the General Pediatric Ward of the Owendo Pediatric Hospital in Libreville, Gabon. Open Journal of Pediatrics, 4, 262-268. doi: 10.4236/ojped.2014.44036.

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