OJEpi  Vol.4 No.4 , November 2014
Epidemiology of Tumors of the Brain and Central Nervous System: Review of Incidence and Patterns among Histological Subtypes
Abstract: Most epidemiology reports indicate that brain tumor rates in whites are higher than other populations and that they are more common in males than females. In this report, we analyze incidence patterns in registry data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program in different histological groups, racial/gender combinations and compare the overall and age-specific incidence rates. Our analysis shows statistically significant racial differences in rates for astrocytomas non-otherwise specified in both sexes, and unspecified malignant intracranial intraspinal neoplasms for females. Those of other specified intracranial and intraspinal neoplasms in females are higher than males, indicating the importance of biological differences. Other glioma young age rates peak after the age of five, the peak is higher for the black race. The study demonstrated several distinctive patterns in the rates by histological subtypes and showed differentiation in the age at diagnosis, giving insight on potential true changes in different subpopulations.
Cite this paper: Vovoras, D. , Pokhrel, K. and Tsokos, C. (2014) Epidemiology of Tumors of the Brain and Central Nervous System: Review of Incidence and Patterns among Histological Subtypes. Open Journal of Epidemiology, 4, 224-234. doi: 10.4236/ojepi.2014.44029.

[1]   Kohler, B.A., Ward, E., McCarthy, B.J., Schymura, M.J., Ries, L.A.G., et al. (2011) Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2007, Featuring Tumors of the Brain and Other Nervous System. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 103, 1-23.

[2]   CBTRUS (2011) Statistical Report: Primary Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the US in 2004-2007. Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, Hinsdale.

[3]   Davis, F.G., McCathry, B.J. and Berger, M.S. (1999) Centralized Databases Available for Describing Primary Brain Tumor Incidence, Survival, and Treatment: Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results; and National Cancer Data Base. Neuro-Oncology, 1, 205-211.

[4]   Darefsky, A. and Dubrow, R. (2009) International Variation in the Incidence of Adult Primary Malignant Neoplasms of the Brain and Central Nervous System. Cancer Causes Control, 20, 1593-1604.

[5]   Kaneko, S., Namura, K., Yoshimura, T. and Yamaguchi, N. (2000) Trend of Brain Tumor Incidence by Histological Subtypes in Japan: Estimation from the Brain Tumor Registry of Japan, 1973-1993. Journal of Nanoelectronics and Optoelectronics, 60, 61-69.

[6]   Deltour, I., Johansen, C., Auvinen, A., Feychting, M., Klaeboe, L., et al. (2009) Time Trends in Brain Tumor Incidence Rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, 1974-2003. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 101, 1721-1724.

[7]   Ohgaki, H. and Kleihues, P. (2005) Genetic Pathways to Primary and Secondary Glioblastoma. The American Journal of Pathology, 170, 1445-1453.

[8]   Watanabe, T., Nobusawa, S., Kleihues, P. and Ohgaki, H. (2009) IDH1 Mutations Are Early Events in the Development of Astrocytomas and Oligodendrogliomas. The American Journal of Pathology, 174, 1149-1153.

[9]   Ohgaki, H. and Kleihues, P. (2005) Population-Based Studies on Incidence, Survival Rates and Genetic Alterations in Astrocytic and Oligodendroglial Gliomas. Journal of Neuropathology Experimental Neurology, 64, 479-489.

[10]   Lehrer, S., Green, S., Ramanathan, L., Rosenzweig, K. and Labombardi, V. (2012) No Consistent Relationship of Glioblastoma Incidence and Cytomegalovirus Seropositivity in Whites, Blacks and Hispanics. International Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment, 32, 1113-1115.

[11]   Sun, T., Warrington, N.M. and Rubin, J.B. (2012) Why Does Jack, and Not Jill, Break His Crown? Sex Disparity in Brain Tumors. Biology of Sex Differences, 3, 3.

[12]   Schwartzbaum, J.A., Fisher, J.L., Aldape, K.D. and Wrensch, M. (2006) Epidemiology and Molecular Pathology of Glioma. Nature Clinical Practice Neurology, 2, 494-503.

[13]   Hochberg, F.H., Baehring, J.M. and Hochberg, E.P. (2007) Primary CNS Lymphoma. Nature Reviews Neurology, 3, 24-35.

[14]   Khurana, V.G., Charles, T., Kundi, M., Hardell, L. and Carlberg, M. (2009) Cell Phones and Brain Tumors: A Review Including the Long-Term Epidemiologic Data. Surgical Neurology, 72, 205-214.

[15]   Little, M.P., Rajaraman, P., Curtis, R.E., Devesa, S.S., Inskip, P.D., et al. (2012) Mobile Phone Use and Glioma Risk: Comparison of Epidemiological Study Results with Incidence Trends in the United States. British Medical Journal, 344, Article ID: e1147.

[16]   Kan, P., Simonsen, S.E., Lyon, J.L. and Kestle, J.R.W. (2008) Cellular Phone Use and Brain Tumor: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 86, 71-78.

[17]   Ahlbom, A., Feychting, M., Green, A., Kheifetl, L., Savitz, D.A., et al. (2009) Epidemiologic Evidence on Mobile Phones and Tumor Risk: A Review. Epidemiology 20:639-652.

[18]   Inskip, P.D., Hoover, R.N. and Devesa, S.S. (2010) Brain Cancer Incidence Trends in Relation to Cellular Telephone Use in the United States. Neuro-Oncology, 12, 1147-1151.

[19]   Smith, M.A., Seibel, N.L., Altekruse, S.F., Ries, L.A.G., Melbert, D.L., et al. (2010) Outcomes for Children and Adolescents with Cancer: Challenges for the Twenty-First Century. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 28, 2625-2634.

[20]   Bishop, A.J., McDonald, M.W., Chang, A.L. and Esiashvili, N. (2012) Infnant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Data. International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, 82, 341-347.

[21]   Kaatsch, P. (2010) Epidemiology of Childhood Cancer. Cancer Treatment Reviews, 36, 277-285.

[22]   Merchant, T.E., Pollack, I.F. and Loeffler, J.S. (2010) Brain Tumors across the Age Spectrum: Biology, Therapy and Late Effects. Seminars in Radiation Oncology, 20, 58-66.

[23]   Pollack, I.F. and Jakacki, R.I. (2011) Childhood Brain Tumors: Epidemiology, Current Management and Future Directions. Nature Reviews Neurology, 7, 495-506.

[24]   Holmes Jr., L., Hossain, J. and Franklin, O. (2012) Pediatric Thyroid Carcinoma Incidence and Temporal Trends in the USA (1973-2007): Race or Shifting Diagnostic Paradigm? International Scholarly Research Network Oncology, 2012, 1-10.

[25]   Linabery, A.M. and Ross, J.A. (2008) Trends in Childhood Cancer Incidence in the US (1992-2004). Cancer, 112, 416-432.

[26]   Bauchet, L., Rigau, V., Mathieu-Daude, H., Fabbro-Peray, P., Palenzuela, G., et al. (2009) Clinical Epidemiology for Childhood Primary Central Nervous System Tumors. Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 92, 87-98.

[27]   Hoffman, S., Propp, J.M. and McCarthy, B.J. (2006) Temporal Trends in Incidence of Primary Brain Tumors in the United States, 1985-1999. Neuro-Onchology, 8, 27-37.

[28]   Hess, K.R., Broglio, K.R. and Bondy, M.L. (2000) Adult Glioma Incidence Trends in the United States, 1977-2000. Cancer, 101, 2293-2299.

[29]   Hoffman, S., Propp, J.M. and McCarthy, B.J. (2006) Temporal Trends in Incidence in Primary Brain Tumors in the United States, 1985-1999. Neuro-Oncology, 8, 27-37.

[30]   McCarthy, B.J., Propp, J.M., Davis, F.G. and Berger, P.C. (2008) Time Trends in Oligodendroglial and Astrocytic Tumor Incidence. Neuroepidemiology, 30, 34-44.

[31]   Hsu, S., Quattrone, M., Ostrom, Q., Ryken, T.C., Sloan, A.E., et al. (2011) Incidence Patterns for Primary Malignant Spinal Cord Gliomas: Surveilance, Epidemiology and End Results Study. Journal of Neurosurgery:Spine, 14, 742-747.

[32]   Deborah, S., Lynch, C.F., Sibenaller, Z.A. and Ryken, T.C. (2006) Trends in Brain Cancer Incidence and Survival in the United States: Surveillance, Epidemiology and Ends Results Program, 1973 to 2001. Neurosurgical Focus, 20, E1.

[33]   Ostrom, Q.T. and Barnholtz-Sloan, J.S. (2011) Current State of Our Knowledge on Brain Tumor Epidemiology. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 11, 329-335.

[34]   Bondy, M.L., Scheurer, M.E., Malmer, B., Barnholtz-Sloan, J.S., Davis, F.G., et al. (2008) Brain Tumor Epidemiology: Consensus from the Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium. Cancer, 113, 1953-1968.

[35]   Claus, E.B., Abdel-Wahab, M., Burger, C.P., Engelhard, H.H., Ellison, D.W., et al. (2010) Defining Future Directions in Spinal Cord Tumor Research Proceedings from the National Institutes of Health Workshop. Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, 12, 117-121.

[36]   Wrensch, M., Minn, Y., Chew, T., Bondy, M., Berger, M.S., et al. (2002) Epidemiology of Primary Brain Tumors: Current Concepts and Review of the Literature. Neuro-Oncology, 4, 278-299.

[37]   Ottaviani, G. and Jaffe, N. (2010) The Epidemiology of Osteosarcoma. Cancer Treatment and Research, 152, 3-13.

[38]   Keene, D.L. and Johnston, D. (2012) Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors: An Epidemiology Review. Tumors of the Central Nervous System, 5, 95-98.

[39]   Baldi, I. and Loiseau, H. (2012) Epidemiology of Primary Brain Tumors. Tumors of the Central Nervous System, 4, 3-13.

[40]   Fisher, J.L., Scwwatzbaum, J.A., Wrensch, M. and Wiemeles, J.L. (2007) Epidemiology of Brain Tumors. Neurologic Clinics, 25, 867-890.

[41]   Brown, M., Schrot, R., Bauer, K. and Letendre, D. (2009) Incidence of First Primary Central Nervous System Tumors in California, 2001-2005. Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 94, 249-261.

[42]   McGuire, C.S., Sainani, K.L. and Fisher, P.G. (2009) Incidence Patterns for Ependymoma: A Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Study. Journal of Neurosurgery, 110, 725-729.

[43]   Schellinger, K.A., Propp, J.M., Villano, J.L. and McCarthy, B.J. (2008) Descriptive Epidemiology of Primary Spinal Cord Tumors. Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 87, 173-179.

[44]   Villano, J.L., Virk, I.Y., Ramirez, V., Propp, J.M., Engelhard, H.H., et al. (2010) Descriptive Epidemiology of Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors: Nonpineal Analysis. Neuro-Oncology, 12, 257-264.

[45]   Villano, J.L., Bressler, L., Propp, J.M., Valyi-Nagy, T., Martin, I.K., et al. (2010) Descriptive Epidemiology of Selected Olfactory Tumors. Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 100, 73-80.

[46]   Caldarella, A., Crocetti, E. and Paci, E. (2011) Is the Incidence of Brain Tumors Really Increasing? A Population-Based Analysis from a Cancer Registry. Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 104, 589-594.

[47]   Gurney, J.G. and Kadan-Lottick, N. (2001) Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors: Rates, Trends and Epidemiology. Current Opinion in Oncology, 13, 160-166.

[48]   Fritz, A., Percy, C., Jack, A., Shanmugarathnam, K., Sobin, L., et al. (2000) International Classification of Diseases for Oncology. 3rd Edition, World Health Organization, Geneva.

[49]   Barr, R.D., Holowaty, E.J. and Birch, J.M. (2006) Classification Scheme for Tumors Diagnosed in Adolescents and Young Adults. Cancer, 106, 1425-1430.

[50]   Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program ( SEER*Stat Database: Incidence -SEER 9 Regs Research Data, Nov 2012 Sub (1973-2010) “Katrina/Rita Population Adjustment”-Linked to County Attributes-Total US, 1969-2011 Counties, National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Surveillance Systems Branch, Released April 2013, Based on the November 2012 Submission.

[51]   Lehmann, E.L. and Romano, J.P. (2005) Testing Statistical Hypotheses. Springer, New York.

[52]   Surawicz, T.S., McCarthy, B.J., Kupelian, V., Jukich, P.J., Bruner, J.M., et al. (1999) Descriptive Epidemilology of Primary Brain and CNS Tumors: Results from the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, 1990-1994. Neuro-Oncology, 1, 14-25.

[53]   Jukich, P.J., McCarthy, B.J., Surawicz, T.S., Freels, S. and Davis, F.G. (2001) Trends in Incidence of Primary Brain Tumors in the United States, 1985-1994. Neuro-Oncology, 3, 141-151.

[54]   Surawicz, T.S., Davis, F., Freels, S., Laws Jr., E.R. and Menck, H.R. (1998) Brain Tumor Survival: Results from the National Cancer Data Base. Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 40, 151-160.

[55]   Shiue, W.K. and Bain, L.J. (1982) Experiment Size and Power Comparisons for Two-Sample Poisson Test. Applied Statistics, 31, 131-134.

[56]   Krishnamoorthy, K. and Thomson, J. (2004) A More Powerful Test for Comparing Two Poisson Means. Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, 119, 23-35.

[57]   Jemal, A., Siegel, R., Ward, E., Murray, T., Xu, J., et al. (2006) Cancer Statistics. A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 56, 106-130.

[58]   Legler, J.M., Gloeckler Reis, L.A., Smith, M.A., Warren, J.L., Heineman, E.F., et al. (1999) Brain and Other Central Nervous System Cancers: Recent Trends in Incidence and Mortality. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 91, 1382-1389.

[59]   Ohgaki, H. and Kleihues, P. (2005) Epidemiology and Etiology of Gliomas. Acta Neuropathologica, 109, 93-108.