OJEMD  Vol.4 No.11 , November 2014
Study of Serum Cholesterol Level in Adult Obese Population of Karachi, Pakistan
Abstract: Background: The present study was planned to investigate the level of cholesterol in obese/non-obese (normal) individuals according to their body mass index (BMI) and age in different population residing in Karachi. Aim: Comparison of serum cholesterol values of obese with normal subjects and comparison of BMI of obese and normal individuals. Methods: Selection of obese subjects was according to the WHO (1998) criteria. A total of 40 subjects 18 - 55 years of age participated in the study, among which 30 subjects (Mean Age = 29.47 ± 1.99) were obese (Mean BMI = 35.41 ± 0.878) and 10 were controls with Mean age = 21.00 ± 0.547 and BMI = 19.96 ± 0.432. An overnight fasting blood sample was obtained and serum total Cholesterol (T-CH) level was estimated. Results: Obese persons having Mean T-CH = 202.6 ± 14.3 and controls having Mean T-CH = 173.3 ± 14.0. The data were further divided into males and females. Obese females were 11 with their BMI 31.836 ± 0.21, mean age ranged at 28.73 ± 4.04 and T-CH 191.8 ± 21.8, while that of control females were 6 in number with their BMI ranged at 19.183 ± 0.507, age 21.000 ± 0.894 and Cholester 148.7 ± 16.0 in controls. Total numbers of obese males were 19 with their BMI ranged at 37.49 ± 1.14, age ranged at 29.89 ± 2.19 and cholesterol level ranged at 208.89 ± 19.1. Control males were 4 in number with their BMI ranged at 21.125 ± 0.075, age 21.250 ± 0.479 and their T-CH 128.7 ± 8.72. Conclusion: The results of current study have reflected that BMI and total cholesterol concentration are higher in obese subjects.
Cite this paper: Mushtaq, R. , Mushtaq, R. , Akram, A. , Khwaja, S. and Ahmed, S. (2014) Study of Serum Cholesterol Level in Adult Obese Population of Karachi, Pakistan. Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, 4, 238-243. doi: 10.4236/ojemd.2014.411024.

[1]   Ruhm, C.J. (2007) Current and Future Prevalence of Obesity and Severe Obesity in the United States. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper No. 13181.

[2]   Vague, J. (1956) The Degree of Masculine Differentiation of Obesities: A Factor Determining Predisposition to Diabetes, Atherosclerosis, Gout, and Uric Calculous Disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 4, 20-34.

[3]   The American Heritage (2004) Dictionary of the English Language. 4th Edition, Turtleback, USA.

[4]   Tanner (2005) The Scientific Definition of Obesity and Its Danger. Mercola Author: Total Health Program.

[5]   Jafar, T.H., Chaturvedi, N. and Papps, G. (2006) Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Their Association with Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus in an Indo-Asian Population. CMAJ, 175, 1071-1017.

[6]   Ashwell, M. (1994) Obesity in Men and Women. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 18, 1-7.

[7]   Pouliot, M.C., Despres, J.P., Lemieux, S., Moorjani, S., Bouchard, C., Tremblay, A., Nadeau, A. and Lupien, P.J. (1994) Waist Circumference and Abdominal Sagittal Diameter: Best Simple Anthropometric Indexes of Abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue Accumulation and Related Cardiovascular Risk in Men and Women. American Journal of Cardiology, 73, 460-468.

[8]   Zhu, S., Wang, Z., Heshka, S., Heo, M., Faith, M.S. and Heymsfield, S.B. (2002) Waist Circumference and Obesity-Associated Risk Factors among Whites in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Clinical Action Thresholds. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76, 743-749.

[9]   Kissebah, A.H. and Krakower, G.R. (1994) Regional Adiposity and Morbidity. Physiological Reviews, 74, 761-811.

[10]   National Institutes of Health & National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (1998) Clinical Guidelines on the Identifi cation, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. The Evidence Report, NIH Publication No. 98-4083, US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Bethesda, MD, p. 74.

[11]   Grundy, S.M. (1987) Monounsaturated Fatty Acid, Plasma Cholesterol and Coronary Heart Disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 45, 1168-1175.

[12]   Vega, G.L., Groszek, E., Wofl, R. and Grundy, S.M. (1982) Influence of Polyunsaturated Fats on Composition of Plasma Lipoproteins and Apoliproteins. Journal of Lipid Research, 23, 811-822.

[13]   Schaefer, E.J., Levy, R.I., Ernst, R.D., Sant, F.D.V. and Brewer, H.B. (1981) The Effect of Low Cholesterol, High Polyunsaturated Fat and Low Fat Diet on Plasma Lipid and Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Normal and Hypercholestremic Subjects. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 34, 1758-1763.

[14]   Shepherd, J., Packard, C.V., Grundy, S.M., Yeshurun, D., Gotto Jr., A.M. and Taunton, O.D. (1980) Effects of Saturated and Polyunsaturated Fat Diets on the Chemical Composition and Metabolism of Low Density Lipoproteins in Men. Journal of Lipid Research, 21, 91-99.

[15]   Tayyab, M., Shad, M.A., Khan, H. and Choudhry, N.A. (1991) Effects of Dietry Lipids on Serum Lipid Profile. Proceedings of Third International Conference. Pakistan Journal of Pathology, 109, 55-56.

[16]   Ikonen, E. (2008) Cellular Cholesterol Trafficking and Compartmentalization. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 9, 125-138.

[17]   World Health Organization (1998) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity, World Health Organization, Geneva, 3-5 June 1998.

[18]   Low, S., Chin, M.C., Ma, S., Heng, D. and Deurenberg-Yap, M. (2009) Rationale for Redefining Obesity in Asian. Annals Academy of Medicine Singapore, 38, 66-69.

[19]   Panagiotakos, D.B., Pitsavos, C., Chrysohoou, C., Risvas, G., Kontogianni, M.D. and Zampelas, A. (2004) Epidemeology of Overweight and Obesity in a Greek Adult Population: The ATTICA Study. Obesity Research, 12, 1914-1920.

[20]   Kragelund, C., Hassager, C., Hildebrandt, P., Torp-Pedersen, C. and Kober, L. (2005) Impact of Obesity on Long Term Prognosis Following Acute Myocardial Infarction. International Journal of Cardiology, 98, 123-131.

[21]   Flegal, K.M., Graubard, B.I., Williamson, D.F. and Gail, M.H. (2005) Excess Deaths Associated with Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293, 1861-1867.

[22]   World Health Organization (2006) Global Strategies on Diet, Physical Activity and Health.

[23]   Pucarin-Evetkovil, J., Mustajbegovic, J., Jelinic, J.D., Senta, A., Nola, I.A. and Ivwnkovic, D. (2006) Body Mass Index and Nutrition as Determinates of Health and Disease in Population of Croatian Adriatic Islands. Croatian Medical Journal, 47, 619-626.

[24]   Costa, G.B., Horta, N., Resende, Z.F., Souza, G., Barreto, L.M. and Correia, L.H. (2009) Body Mass Index Has Good Correlation with Protherosclerotic Profile in Children and Adolescents. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, 93, 261-267.

[25]   Aghasadeghi, K., Zarei-Nezhad, M., Keshavarzi, A. and Mehravanid, D. (2008) The Prevalence of Coronary Risk Factors in Iranian Lor Migrating Tribe. Archives of Iranian Medicine, 11, 322-325.

[26]   Hussain, I., Sana, B., Waheed, K. and Qaisera, S. (2009) Association of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Biometric Variable: A Study in Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore. Annals of King Edward Medical University, 15, 48-53.

[27]   Azizi, F., Rahmani, M., Emami, H., Mimian, P., Hajipur, R. and Madjid, M. (2002) Cardiovascular Risk Factors in an Iranian Urban Population: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (Phase I). Sozial-und Praventivmedizin, 47, 408-426.

[28]   Turcato, E., Bosello, O., Di Francesco, V., Harris, T.B., Zoico, E. and Bissow, L. (2000) Waist Circumference and Abdominal Sagittal Diameter as Surrogates of Body Fat Distribution in the Elderly Their Relation with Cardiovascular Risk Factors. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 24, 1005-1010.