OJOG  Vol.4 No.15 , November 2014
Obesity Appears to Impact Male Fertility by Degrading Overall Semen Quality Rather than Individual Semen Parameters
ABSTRACT
Obesity has become a well-recognized medical issue. However its exact role in male infertility remains unclear. The objective of the current study was to determine if an increase inBMIis associated with an increase in semen parameter abnormalities and if this relationship was influenced by other patient activities. Charts were reviewed for one hundred and thirty-three male patients who had also undergone a complete initial office face to face interview, as part of an infertility evaluation and a semen analysis. As part of standard patient care, all patients answered a detailed questionnaire regarding demographics, exposures, medical and reproductive history as part of their infertility evaluation. Patients were grouped according toBMIas normal (20 - 24 kg/m2), overweight (25 - 30 kg/m2), or obese (>30 kg/m2). Semen analysis parameters analyzed included: morphology, volume, concentration, percent motility, and agglutination. While some parameters suggested trends, results were similar between the normal, overweight, and obeseBMI, for concentration (P= 0.18), volume (P = 0.845), motility (P = 0.06); % Positive agglutination: 12%, 7%, 7% (P = 0.668) and % normal morphology (P = 0.083). Unlike a number of previous studies, results indicate that there is no statistically significant association betweenBMIand any of the individual semen parameters tested. Raw data suggested a trend for decreasing concentration with increasingBMI. Further, data also suggested equal numbers of oligospermics in each group. However, when the data looked at globally rather than on the effects on individually parameters (total number of normal motile sperm cells—NMS), functional sperm cells decreased with increasing BMI. None of these factors appeared to be affected by other patient factors. Collectively these data suggest that obesity has a multifactorial effect on male fertility; possibly due to relationships with the hormone cascade, body composition and potentially testis temperature regulation. Further study will be needed to confirm such relationships.

Cite this paper
Petty, J. , Jabara, S. , Prien, S. , Penrose, L. (2014) Obesity Appears to Impact Male Fertility by Degrading Overall Semen Quality Rather than Individual Semen Parameters. Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 4, 917-923. doi: 10.4236/ojog.2014.415129.
References
[1]   Mokdad, A.H., Bowman, B.A., Ford, E.S., et al. (2001) The Continuing Epidemics of Obesity and Diabetes in the United States. JAMA, 286, 1195-1200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.286.10.1195

[2]   Ogden, C.L., Carroll, M.D., Kit, B.K., et al. (2012) Prevalence of Obesity in the United States, 2009-2010. NCHS Data Brief, No. 82, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville.

[3]   Zaadstra, B.M., Seidell, J.C., Van Noord, P.A., et al. (1993) Fat and Female Fecundity: Prospective Study of Effect of Body Fat Distribution on Conception Rates. British Medical Journal, 306, 484-487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.306.6876.484

[4]   Guzick, D.S., Overstreet, J.W., Factor-Litvak, P., et al. (2001) National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network. Sperm Morphology, Motility, and Concentration in Fertile and Infertile Men. The New England Journal of Medicine, 345, 1388-1393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa003005

[5]   Jensen, T.K., Andersson, A.M., J?rgensen, N., et al. (2004) Body Mass Index in Relation to Semen Quality and Reproductive Hormones among 1,558 Danish Men. Fertility and Sterility, 82, 863-870. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2004.03.056

[6]   Kort, H.I., Massey, J.B., Elsner, C.W., et al. (2006) Impact of Body Mass Index Values on Sperm Quantity and Quality. Journal of Andrology, 27, 450-452. http://dx.doi.org/10.2164/jandrol.05124

[7]   Hammoud, A.O., Wilde, N., Gibson, M., et al. (2008) Male Obesity and Alteration in Sperm Parameters. Fertility and Sterility, 90, 2222-2225.

[8]   Sallmén, M., Sandler, D.P., Hoppin, J.A., et al. (2006) Reduced Fertility among Overweight and Obese Men. Epidemiology, 17, 520-523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ede.0000229953.76862.e5

[9]   Nguyen, R.H., Wilcox, A.J., Skjaerven, R., et al. (2007) Men’s Body Mass Index and Infertility. Human Reproduction, 22, 2488-2493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dem139

[10]   World Health Organization (1999) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic: Report of a WHO Consultation. WHO Consultation on Obesity, Geneva.

[11]   World Health Organization (1999) Laboratory Manual for the Examination of Human Semen and Sperm-Cervical Mucus Interaction. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[12]   Pauli, E.M., Legro, R.S., Demers, L.M., et al. (2008) Diminished Paternity and Gonadal Function with Increasing Obesity in Men. Fertility and Sterility, 90, 346-351.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2007.06.046

[13]   Winters, S.J., Wang, C., Abdelrahaman, E., et al. (2006) Inhibin-B Levels in Healthy Young Adult Men and Prepubertal Boys: Is Obesity the Cause for the Contemporary Decline in Sperm Count Because of Fewer Sertoli Cells? Journal of Andrology, 27, 560-564. http://dx.doi.org/10.2164/jandrol.05193

[14]   Aggerholm, A.S., Thulstrup, A.M., Toft, G., et al. (2008) Is Overweight a Risk Factor for Reduced Semen Quality and Altered Serum Sex Hormone Profile? Fertility and Sterility, 90, 619-626. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2007.07.1292

[15]   Eisenberg, M.L., Kim, S., Chen, Z., et al. (2014) The Relationship between Male BMI and Waist Circumference on Semen Quality: Data from the LIFE Study. Human Reproduction, 29, 193-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/det428

[16]   Schisterman, E.F., Mumford, S.L., Chen, Z., et al. (2014) Lipid Concentrations and Semen Quality: The LIFE Study. Andrology, 2, 408-415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2047-2927.2014.00198.x

[17]   Sánchez-Garrido, M.A., Ruiz-Pino, F., Manfredi-Lozano, M., et al. (2014) Obesity-Induced Hypogonadism in the Male: Premature Reproductive Neuroendocrine Senescence and Contribution of Kiss1-Mediated Mechanisms. Endocrinology, 155, 1067-1079. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2013-1584

[18]   Fui, M.N., Dupuis, P. and Grossmann, M. (2014) Lowered Testosterone in Male Obesity: Mechanisms, Morbidity and Management. Asian Journal of Andrology, 16, 223-231.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1008-682X.122365

 
 
Top