AJAC  Vol.2 No.2 , May 2011
Ultrasound-Assisted Emulsification Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Based on Solidification of Floating Organic Droplet for Separation of Trace Gold Prior to Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Determination
Abstract: In the present work, a ultrasound-assisted emulsification dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet method has been developed as a sample preparation method prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination of trace amounts of gold in the standard, wastewater and river water samples. In the proposed method, 1-dodecanol and 5-(4-dimethylamino-benzylidene) were used as extraction solvent and chelating agent, respectively. Several factors that may be affected on the ex-traction process, such as type and volume of the extraction solvent, ionic strength, pH of the aqueous solu-tion, extraction temperature and extraction time were studied and optimized. Under the best experimental conditions, the calibration curve exhibited linearity over the range of 8.0 ng●mL-1- 3.0 µg●mL-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9978 and detection limit based on three times the standard deviation of the blank signal was 1.5 ng●mL-1. Eight replicate determinations of 0.2 and 1.0 μg●mL-1 of gold gave a mean absorbance of 0.051 and 0.253 with relative standard deviations of ±2.3% and ±1.5%, respectively. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of gold ions in a silica ore, wastewater, river water and standard samples and satisfactory results were obtained.
Cite this paper: nullS. Mohammadi, M. Karimi, A. Shiebani and L. Karimzadeh, "Ultrasound-Assisted Emulsification Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Based on Solidification of Floating Organic Droplet for Separation of Trace Gold Prior to Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Determination," American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2011, pp. 243-249. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2011.22029.

[1]   K. Pyrzynska, “Recent Developments in the Determination of Gold by Atomic Spectrometry Techniques,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, Vol. 60, No. 9-10, 2005, pp. 1316-1322. doi:10.1016/j.sab.2005.06.010

[2]   S. M. Rancic, S. D. Nikolic-Mandic and L. M. Mandic, “Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method for Gold(III) Determination,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 547, No. 1, 2005, pp. 144-149. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2004.11.078

[3]   Z. Zuoto and T. McCreedy, “Flow-Injection Spectrophotometric Determination of Gold Using 5-(4-Sulphopheny- lazo)-8-Aminoquinoline,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 401, No. 1-2, 1999, pp. 237-241. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(99)00498-5

[4]   J. Medved, M. Bujdos, P. Matus and J. Kubova, “Cloud Point Extraction and Preconcentration of Gold in Geological Matrices Prior to Flame Atomic Absorption Determination,” Central European Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2004, pp. 30-40.

[5]   V. Kanicky, V. Otruba and J. M. Mermet, “Comparison of Some Analytical Performance Characteristics in Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry of Platinum Group Metals and Gold,” Talanta, 48, No. 4, 1999, pp. 859-866. doi:10.1016/S0039-9140(98)00102-7

[6]   C. Kavakli, N. O. Zvatan, S. A. Tuncel and B. Salih, “1,4,8,11-Tetraazacyclotetradecane Bound to Poly (p-Chloromethylstyrene–Ethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate) Microbeads for Selective Gold Uptake,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 464, No. 2, 2002, pp. 313-322. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(02)00484-1

[7]   V. L. Dressler, D. Pozebon and A. Curtius, “Determination of Ag, Te, U and Au in Waters and in Biological Samples by FI–ICP-MS Following On-Line Preconcentration,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 438, No. 1-2, July 2001, pp. 235-244. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(01)00861-3

[8]   H. B. Senturk, A. Gundogdu, V. N. Bulut, C. Duran, M. Soylak, L. Elci and M. Tufekci, “Separation and Enrichment of Gold(III) from Environmental Samples Prior to Its Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 149, No. 2, 2007, pp. 317-323. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.03.083

[9]   M. Tuzen, K. O. Saygi and M. Soylak, “Novel Solid Phase Extraction Procedure for Gold(III) on Dowex M 4195 Prior to Its Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 156, No. 1-3, 2008, pp. 591-595. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.12.062

[10]   L. Tavakoli, Y. Yamini, H. Ebrahimzadeh, A. Nezhadali, S. Shariati and F. Nourmohammadian, “Development of Cloud Point Extraction for Simultaneous Extraction and Determination of Gold and Palladium Using ICP-OES,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 152, No. 2, 2008, pp. 737-743. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.07.039

[11]   E. A. Moawed, N. Burham and M. F. El-Shahat, “Selective Separation and Determination of Copper and Gold in Gold Alloy Using Ion Exchange Polyurethane Foam,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, Vol. 30, No. 13, 2007, pp. 1903-1914. doi:10.1080/10826070701386488

[12]   Z. J. Huang, F. Huang, X. J. Yang, Q. Y. Wei and C. Jing, “Solid Phase Extraction and Spectrophotometric Determination of Trace Gold Using 5-(4-Carboxylphenyla- zo)-8-Hydroxyquinoline,” Chemistry Analysis (Warsaw), Vol. 52, 2007, pp. 93-101.

[13]   M. Soylak, L. Elci and M. Dogan, “A Sorbent Extraction Procedure for the Preconcentration of Gold, Silver and Palladium on an Activated Carbon Column,” Analytical Letters, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2000, pp. 513-525. doi:10.1080/00032710008543070

[14]   H. Y. Wang, S. H. Qian, S. B. Mo and G. Q. Huang, “Application Studies of Crosslinked Chitosan in Preconcentration and Separation of Trace Au (III),” Fenxi Huaxue (Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry), Vol. 33, No. 2, 2005, pp. 198-200.

[15]   M. S. El-Shahawi, A. S. Bashammakh and S. O. Bahaffi, “Chemical Speciation and Recovery of Gold(I,III) from Wastewater and Silver by Liquid–Liquid Extraction with the Ion-Pair Reagent Amiloride Mono Hydrochloride and AAS Determination,” Talanta, Vol. 72, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1494-1499. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2007.01.057

[16]   X. P. Luo, Q. Yan and H. Q. Peng, “Solvent Extraction of Gold from Polysulfide Solution,” Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 82, No. 3-4, August 2006, pp. 144-149. doi:10.1016/j.hydromet.2006.03.015

[17]   F. J. Alguacil, P. Adeva and M. Alonso, “Processing of Residual Gold (III) Solutions via Ion Exchange,” Gold Bulletin, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2005, pp. 9-13. doi:10.1007/BF03215222

[18]   M. A. Jeannot and F. F. Cantwell, “Solvent Microextraction into a Single Drop,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 68, No. 13, 1996, pp. 2236-2240. doi:10.1021/ac960042z

[19]   M. Rezaee, Y. Assadi, M. R. Milani Hosseini, E. Aghaee, F. Ahmadi and S. Berijani, “Determination of Organic Compounds in Water Using Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1116, No. 1-2, 2006, pp. 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2006.03.007

[20]   A. P. Birjandi, A. Bidari, F. Rezaei, M. R. M. Hosseini and Y. Assadi, “Speciation of Butyl and Phenyltin Compounds Using Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Flame Photometric Detection,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1193, No. 1-2, June 2008, pp. 19-25. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2008.04.003

[21]   J. Xiong and B. Hu, “Comparison of Hollow Fiber Liquid Phase Microextraction and Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction for the Determination of Organosulfur Pesticides in Environmental and Beverage Samples by Gas Chromatography with Flame Photometric Detection,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1193, No. 1-2, 2008, pp. 7-18. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2008.03.072

[22]   M. D. Luque de Castro and F. Priego-Capote, “Analytical Applications of Ultrasound,” Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006

[23]   M. D. Luque de Castro and F. Priego-Capote, “Ultrasound-Assisted Preparation of Liquid Samples,” Talanta, Vol. 72, No. 2, 2007, pp. 321-334. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2006.11.013

[24]   J. A. Perez-Serradilla, F. Priego-Capote and M. D. Luque de Castro, “Simultaneous Ultrasound-Assisted Emulsification?Extraction of Polar and Nonpolar Compounds from Solid Plant Samples,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 79, No. 11, 2007, pp. 6767-6774. doi:10.1021/ac0708801

[25]   J. Regueiro, M. Llompart, C. Garcia-Jares, J. C. Garcia-Monteagudo and R. Cela, “Ultrasound-Assisted Emulsification–Microextraction of Emergent Contaminants and Pesticides in Environmental Waters,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1190, No. 1-2, May 2008, pp. 27-38. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2008.02.091

[26]   A. R. Fontana, R. G. Wuilloud, L. D. Martinez and J. C. Altamirano, “Simple Approach Based on Ultrasound- Assisted Emulsification-Microextraction for Determination of Polibrominated Flame Retardants in Water Samples by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1216, No. 1, 2009, pp. 147-153. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2008.11.034

[27]   M. R. K. Zanjani, Y. Yamini, S. Shariati and J. A. Jo?nsson, “A New Liquid-Phase Microextraction Method Based on Solidification of Floating Organic Drop,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 585, No. 2, March 2007, pp. 286-293. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2006.12.049

[28]   S. Dadfarnia, A. M. Salmanzadeh and A. M. H. Shabani, “A Novel Separation/Preconcentration System Based on Solidification of Floating Organic Drop Microextraction for Determination of Lead by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 623, No. 2, August 2007, pp. 163-167. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2008.06.033

[29]   H. Xu, Z. Ding, L. Lv, D. Song and Y. Q. Feng, “A Novel Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction Based on Solidification of Floating Organic Droplet Method for Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Aqueous Samples,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 636, No. 1, March 2009, pp. 28-36. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2009.01.028

[30]   N. Pourreza and S. Rastegarzadeh, “Simultaneous Determination of Gold and Palladium with 5(p-Dimethylamino-Benzylidene) Rhodanine by Using the H-Point Standard Addition Method in Micellar Media,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 437, No. 2, June 2001, 273-280. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(01)00988-6

[31]   D. Afzali, A. Mostafavi and M. Mirzaei, “Preconcentration of Gold Ions from Water Samples by Modified Organo-Nanoclay Sorbent Prior to Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Determination,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 181, No. 1-3, September 2010, pp. 957-961. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.05.106