Back
 AJPS  Vol.5 No.21 , October 2014
Genetic Parameters Estimates Associated to Conversion of Nicotine to Nornicotine in Burley Tobacco
Abstract: Nicotine represents the predominant alkaloid in cultivated tobacco. In burley varieties, during senescence and curing of leaves, nicotine can be converted to nornicotine, which is highly undesirable because of its relationship with the tobacco specific nitrosamines formation. Thus, an alternative for producing varieties with low or null nornicotine content would be to select plants or progenies for traits related to nicotine conversion. Therefore, understanding genetic control and inheritance underlying this process is important to chooseappropriate strategies in breeding programs. Two contrasting inbred lines for nicotine conversion to nornicotine, TN 90 and BY 37, have been crossed to obtain the segregating generations (F2 and BCs). Genetic parameters of mean and variance, as well as the average degree of dominance and heritability were estimated. It has been found that nicotine conversion has predominantly additive effects, and in addition, narrow sense heritabilities at the individual level were higher than 65%. Both are desirable conditions for conducting a selection program of burley tobacco aiming at development of inbred lines associating yield and other traits with low or null nicotine conversion.
Cite this paper: Carvalho, B. , Patto Ramalho, M. , Pulcinelli, C. and Bruzi, A. (2014) Genetic Parameters Estimates Associated to Conversion of Nicotine to Nornicotine in Burley Tobacco. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 3380-3388. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.521353.
References

[1]   Sisson, V.A. and Severson, R.F. (1990) Alkaloid Composition of the Nicotiana Species. Beitr. Tabakforsch, 14, 327-399.

[2]   Saitoh, F., Noma, M. and Kawashima, N. (1985) The Alkaloid Contents of 60 Nicotianaspecies. Phytochemistry, 24, 477-480.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)80751-7

[3]   Siminszky, B., Gavilano, L., Bowen, S.W. and Dewey, R.E. (2005) Conversion of Nicotine to Nornicotine in Nicotianatabacum Is Mediated by CYP82E4, a Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 14919-14924.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0506581102

[4]   Hao, D.Y. and Yeoman, M.M. (1996) Mechanism of Nicotine N-Demethylation in Tobacco Cell Suspension Cultures. Phytochemistry, 41, 477-482.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(95)00532-3

[5]   Hao, D.Y. and Yeoman, M.M. (1996) Nicotine N-Demethylase in Cell-Free Preparations from Tobacco Cell Cultures. Phytochemistry, 42, 325-329.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(95)00868-3

[6]   Hao, D.Y. and Yeoman, M.M. (1998) Evidence in Favour of an Oxidative N-Demethylation of Nicotine to Nornicotine in Tobacco Cell Cultures. Journal of Plant Physiology, 152, 420-426.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0176-1617(98)80258-7

[7]   Hecht, S.S. (1998) Biochemistry, Biology, and Carcinogenicity of Tobacco-Specific N-Nitrosamines. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 11, 559-603.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx980005y

[8]   Williams, D.L.H. (1999) The Chemistry of S-Nitrosothiols. Accounts of Chemical Research, 32, 869-876. Cancer. Cancer Surv., 8, 273-294.

[9]   Hecht, S.S. and Hoffmann, D. (1989) The Relevance of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines to Human Cancer. Cancer Surv., 8, 273-294.

[10]   Li, Q., Krauss, M.R. and Hempfling, W.P. (2006) Wounding of Root or Basal Stalk Prior to Harvest Affects PreHarvest Antioxidant Accumulation and Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Formation during Air Curing of Burley Tobacco (Nicotianatabacum L.). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 192, 267-277.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.2006.00217.x

[11]   Dickerson, T.J. and Janda, K.D. (2002) A Previously Undescribed Chemical Link between Smoking and Metabolic Disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 15084-15088.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.222561699

[12]   Katz, J., Caudle, R.M., Bhattacharyya, I., Stewart, C.M. and Cohen, D.M. (2005) Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Product (RAGE) Upregulation in Human Gingival Fibroblasts Incubated with Nornicotine. Journal of Periodontology, 76, 1171-1174.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1902/jop.2005.76.7.1171

[13]   Brogan, A.P., Dickerson, T.J., Boldt, G.E. and Janda, K.D. (2005) Altered Retinoid Homeostasis Catalyzed by a Nicotine Metabolite: Implications in Macular Degeneration and Normal Development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 10433-10438.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0504721102

[14]   Stratton, K.R., Shetty, P., Wallace, R. and Bondurant, S. (2001) Clearing the Smoke: Assessing the Science Base for Tobacco Harm Reduction. National Academy Press, Washington DC.

[15]   Gartner, C.E., Hall, W.D., Vos, T., Bertram, M.Y., Wallace, A.L. and Lim, S.S. (2007) Assessment of Swedish Snus for Tobacco Harm Reduction: An Epidemiological Study. Lancet, 369, 2010-2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60677-1

[16]   Wernsman, E.A. and Matzinger, D.F. (1968) Time and Site of Nicotine Conversion in Tobacco. Tobacco Science, 12, 226-228.

[17]   Bush, L.P., Cui, M., Shi, H., Burton, H.R., Fannin, F.F., Lei, L. and Dye, N. (2001) Formation of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in Air-Cured Tobacco. Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci., 27, 23-46.

[18]   Gavilano, L.B. and Siminszky, B. (2007) Isolation and Characterization of the Cytochrome P450 Gene CYP82E5v2 That Mediates Nicotine to Nornicotine Conversion in the Green Leaves of Tobacco. Plant and Cell Physiology, 48, 1567-1574.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcm128

[19]   Griffith, R.B., Valleau, W.D. and Stokes, G.W. (1955) Determination and Inheritance of Nicotine to Nornicotine Conversion in Tobacco. Science, 121, 343-344.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.121.3140.343

[20]   Burk, L.G. and Jeffrey, R.N. (1958) A Study of the Inheritance of Alkaloid Quality in Tobacco. Tobacco Science, 2, 139-141.

[21]   Wernsman, E.A. and Matzinger, D.F. (1970) Relative Stability of Alleles at the Nicotine Conversion Locus of Tobacco. Tobacco Science, 14, 34-36.

[22]   Gavilano, L.B., Coleman, N.P., Burnley, L.E., Bowman, M.L., Kalengamaliro, N.E., Hayes, A., Bush, L. and Siminszky, B. (2006) Genetic Engineering of Nicotiana tabacum for Reduced Nornicotine Content. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 9071-9078.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0610458

[23]   Lewis, R.S., Jack, A.M., Morris, J.W., Robert, V.J.M., Gavilano, L., Siminszky, B., Bush, L.P., Hayes, A.J. and Dewey, R.E. (2008) RNAi-Induced Suppression of Nicotine Demethylase Activity Reduces Levels of a Key Carcinogen in Cured Tobacco Leaves. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 6, 346-354.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7652.2008.00324.x

[24]   Waterhouse, P.M. and Helliwell, C.A. (2004) Exploring Plant Genomes by RNA-Induced Gene Silencing. Nature Reviews Genetics, 4, 29-38.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrg982

[25]   Julio, E., Laporte, F., Reis, S., Rothan, C. and Dorlhac de Borne, F. (2008) Reducing the Content of Nornicotine in Tobacco via Targeted Mutation Breeding. Molecular Breeding, 21, 369-381.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11032-007-9138-2

[26]   R Core Team (2014) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
http://www.R-project.org/

[27]   Resende, M.D.V. (2002) Genética Biométrica e Estatística no Melhoramento de Plantas. EmbrapaInformação Tecnológica, Brasília.

[28]   Rowe, K.E. and Alexander, W.L. (1980) Computations for Estimating the Genetic Parameters in Joint-Scaling Tests. Crop Science, 20, 109-110.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1980.0011183X002000010027x

[29]   Mather, K. and Jinks, J.L. (1982) Introduction to Biometrical Genetics. Chapman and Hall Ltd., London.

[30]   Bernardo, R. (2010) Breeding for Quantitative Traits in Plants. Stemma Press, Woobury.

[31]   Falconer, D.S. and Mackay, T.F.C. (1996) Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. Pearson Education Limited, Malaysia.

[32]   Mann, T.J., Weybrew, J.A., Matzinger, D.F. and Hall, J.F. (1964) Inheritance of the Conversion of Nicotine to Nornicotine in Varieties of Nicotiana tabacum L. and Related Amphidiploids. Crop Science, 4, 349-353.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1964.0011183X000400040003x

[33]   Aleksoski, J. (2010) Estimation of the Heterotic Effect in F1 Generation of Various Tobacco Genotypes and Their Diallel Crosses. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, 24, 407-411.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13102818.2010.10817873

[34]   Wang, Y., Cheng, J., Cai, C., Lin, G., Huang, W., Zhou, Y. and Xiao, Z. (2009) The Heterosis and Genetic Analysis of Main Agronomic Traits of Burley Tobacco. Chinese Tobacco Science, 3.

[35]   Carvalho, B.L., Pullcinelli, C.E., Raposo, F.V., Ramalho, M.A.P. and Bruzi, A.T. (2013) Potencial do emprego de sementeshíbridasem Tabaco, grupo varietal virginia. Anais do XXII Congresso de Pós-Graduação da UFLA, Lavras.

[36]   Jack, A., Fannin, N. and Bush, L.P. (2007) Implications of Reducing Nornicotine Accumulation in Burley Tobacco: Appendix A—The LC Protocol. Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci., 33, 58-79.

[37]   Lewis, R.S., Bowen, S.W., Keogh, M.R. and Dewey, R.E. (2010) Three Nicotine Demethylase Genes Mediate Nornicotine Biosynthesis in Nicotiana tabacum L.: Functional Characterization of the CYP82E10 Gene. Phytochemistry, 71, 1988-1998.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2010.09.011

[38]   Raboy, V. (2013) The Future of Crop Breeding fro Nutritional Quality. SABRAO Journal of Breeding and Genetics, 45, 100-111.

 
 
Top