AS  Vol.5 No.12 , October 2014
The Value of Pig Manure as a Source of Nutrients for Semi-Intensive Culture of Nile Tilapia in Ponds (A Review)
Abstract: Growing global needs for food call for substantial increases in protein production in coming years, and for diligent conservation efforts. Manures from farm animals have been viewed both as a resource and as a waste product, but they are critically important sources of nutrients for organic and integrated farming and for traditional Asian aquaculture. Given constraints on livestock production and capture fisheries, careful development of the aquaculture industry is a necessity. The production volume and market share of tilapia are advancing extremely rapidly, and so too is the proliferation of misinformation and controversy. Culture and feeding practices differ widely, but feeding is usually recognized as the single largest cost to producers. Traditional Asian integrated farming practices involve the use of manures and other farm wastes to promote algae and zoo-plankton production, serving as a sole or supplemental nutrient source to the food chain that supports tilapia growout. Tilapia also ingest manures. The efficient use of nutrients from manures can have multiple benefits to integrated terrestrial agriculture and aquaculture, as long as product safety and quality are not compromised. With efficient use, handling of manures is simplified, fish production costs are reduced, fish nutrition can be improved, and potentially polluting materials are cycled constructively on integrated farms. Consumer and press reactions to the use of farm manures in food production can be highly polarized. Published responses cover a range of extremes, from enthusiastic endorsement to volatile reactions and outright rejection; in some areas this practice is considered to be more of a “PR (Public Relations) problem” than a health hazard. The perception in online public media that tilapia coming from ponds fertilized with manure are heavily contaminated with pathogens has not been supported by evidence. The perspectives of farmers in two major tilapia production areas (China and the Philippines) are included.
Cite this paper: Brown, C. , Yang, T. , Fitzsimmons, K. and Bolivar, R. (2014) The Value of Pig Manure as a Source of Nutrients for Semi-Intensive Culture of Nile Tilapia in Ponds (A Review). Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1182-1193. doi: 10.4236/as.2014.512128.

[1]   UNDESA (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division) (2013) World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision, Highlights and Advance Tables. United Nations, New York.

[2]   FAO (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization) (2012) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. 2012 FAO Fisheries Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

[3]   FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) (2014) Fish: What Pregnant Women and Parents Should Know US Food and Drug Administration, FDA and EPA Issue Draft Updated Advice for Fish Consumption.

[4]   Larsen, J. and Roney, J.M. (2013) Farmed Fish Production Overtakes Beef.

[5]   Gormaz, J.G., Fry, J.P., Erazo, M., and Love, D.C. (2014) Public Health Perspectives on Aquaculture. Current Environmental Health Reports.

[6]   FAO (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization) (2014) Conservation Agriculture.

[7]   Hobbs, P.R., Sayre, K. and Gupta, R. (2008) The Role of Conservation Agriculture in Sustainable Agriculture. Philoshophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 363, 543-555.

[8]   Kirchmann, H., Thorvaldsson, G. (2000) Challenging Targets for Future Agriculture. European Journal of Agronomy, 12, 145-161.

[9]   Flagg, T.A. and Mobrand, L.E. (2010) Conservation Aquaculture Approaches for Hatchery Reform. Bulletin of Fisheries Research Agency (Japan), 29, 85-91.

[10]   Den Hartog L. (2004) Developments in Global Pig Production. Advances in Pork Production, 15, 17-24.

[11]   Brown, L.R. (2006) Plan B 2.0: Rescuing a Planet under Stress and a Civilization in Trouble. W.W. Norton and Co., New York.

[12]   Eshel, G., Shepon, A., Makov, T. and Milo, R. (2014) Land, Irrigation Water, Greenhouse Gas, and Reactive Nitrogen Burdens of Meat, Eggs, and Dairy Production in the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111, 11996-12001.

[13]   Krapac, I.G., Dey, W.S., Roy, W.R., Smyth, C.A., Storment, E., Sargent, S.L. and Steele, J.D. (2002) Impacts of Swine Manure Pits on Groundwater Quality. Environmental Pollution, 120, 475-492.

[14]   Brown, S.B., Ikenberry, C.D., Soupir, M.L., Bisinger, J. and Russell, J.R. (2014) Predicting Time Cattle Spend in Streams to Quantify Direct Deposition of Manure for TMDL Development. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 30, 187-195.

[15]   FAO (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization) (2006) Livestock’s Long Shadow—Environmental Issues and Options.

[16]   Gerber, P., Wassenaar, T., Rosales, M., Castel, V. and Steinfeld, H. (2007) Environmental Impacts of a Changing Livestock Production: Overview and Discussion for a Comparative Assessment with Other Food Production Sectors. In: Bartley, D.M., Brugere, C., Soto, D., Gerber, P. and Harvey, B., Eds., Comparative Assessment of the Environmental Costs of Aquaculture and Other Food Production Sectors: Methods for Meaningful Comparisons, FAO/WFT Expert Workshop, Vancouver, 24-28 April 2006, 37-54.

[17]   Green, B.W. and Duke III, C.B. (2006) Pond Production. In: Lim, C.E. and Webster, C.D., Eds., Tilapia Biology, Culture, and Nutrition, Food Products Press, New York, 253-288.

[18]   Boyd, C.E. (2006) Management of Bottom Soil Condition and Pond Water and Effluent Quality. In: Lim, C.E. and Webster, C.D., Eds., Tilapia Biology, Culture, and Nutrition, Food Products Press, New York, 449-467.

[19]   Fitzsimmons, K. (2006) Prospect and Potential for Global Production. In: Lim, C.E. and Webster, C.D., Eds., Tilapia Biology, Culture, and Nutrition, Food Products Press, New York, 51-72.

[20]   EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) (2012) Ag-101. Poultry Production.

[21]   Josupeit, H. (2005) World Market of Tilapia. GLOBEFISH Research Programme, Vol. 79, FAO, Rome.

[22]   Josupeit, H. (2010) World Supply and Demand of Tilapia. FAO, Rome.

[23]   Mader, S.S. (1996) Biology. 5th Edition, W. C. Brown, Dubuque.

[24]   Waite, R., Beveridge, M., Brummett, R., Castine, S., Chaiyawannakarn, N., Kaushik, S., Mungkung, R., Nawapakpilai, S. and Phillips, M. (2014) Working Paper, Installment 5 of Creating a Sustainable Food Future. Improving Productivity and Environmental Performance of Aquaculture. World Resources Institute, Washington DC.

[25]   Cressey, D. (2009) Aquaculture: Future Fish. Nature, 458, 398-400.

[26]   Rosenthal, E. (2011) Another Side of Tilapia, The Perfect Factory Fish. The New York Times.

[27]   Paxton, H. (2010) The Effects of Selective Breeding on the Architectural Properties of the Pelvic Limb in Broiler Chickens: A Comparative Study across Modern and Ancestral Populations. Journal of Anatomy, 217, 153-166.

[28]   Wideman, R.F., Rhoads, D., Erf, G. and Anthony, N. (2013) Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (Ascites Syndrome) in Broilers: A Review. Poultry Science, 92, 64-83.

[29]   Ponzoni, R.W., Nguyen, H.N. and Khaw, H.L. (2006) Importance and Implementation of Simple and Advanced Selective Breeding Programs for Aquaculture Species in Developing Countries. In: Proceedings of the 8th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Belo Horizonte, 13-18 August 2006.

[30]   Ridha, M.T. (2011) Evaluation of Monosex Culture of GIFT and Non-Improved Strains of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Recirculating Tanks. International Aquatic Research, 3, 189-195.

[31]   Yosef, S. (2009) Farming the Aquatic Chicken: Improved Tilapia in the Philippines. In: Spielman, D.J. and Pandya-Lorch, R., Eds., Millions Fed: Proven Successes in Agricultural Development, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC, Chapter 18.

[32]   ADB (Asian Development Bank) (2005) An Evaluation of Small-Scale Freshwater Rural Aquaculture Development for Poverty Reduction. 164 p.

[33]   Gupta, M.V. and Acosta, B.O. (2004) From Drawing Board to Dining Table: The Success Story of the GIFT Project. Naga, Worldfish Center Quarterly, 27, 4-14.

[34]   Ezeafurukwe, C.F., Osuagwu, L.E. and Ahaotu, E.O. (2013) Effect of Artificial Feed and Fertilization of Ponds on Growth and Body Composition of Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia. International Journal of Agriculture and Bioscience, 2, 160-163.

[35]   Ahmed, N., Young, J.A., Dey, M.M. and Muir, J.F. (2011) From Production to Consumption: A Case of Tilapia Marketing Systems in Bangladesh. Aquaculture International.

[36]   Bolivar, R.B., Jimenez, E.B.T. and Brown, C.L. (2006) Alternate-Day Feeding Strategy for Nile Tilapia Grow out in the Philippines: Marginal Cost-Revenue Analyses. North American Journal of Aquaculture, 68, 192-197.

[37]   Lim, C.E., Webster, C.D. and Li, M.H. (2006) Feeding Practices. In: Lim, C.E. and Webster, C.D., Eds., Tilapia Biology, Culture, and Nutrition, Food Products Press, New York, 547-559.

[38]   Hopkins, K.D. and Cruz, E.M. (1982) The ICLARM-CLSU Integrated Animal-Fish Farming Project: Final Report. ICLARM Technical Reports 5, International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Makati.

[39]   Ogello, E.O., Mlingi, F.T. and Munguti, J.M. (2013) Can Integrated Livestock-fish Culture be a Solution to East Africa’s Food Insecurity? A Review. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 13, 8058-8076.

[40]   Chastain, J.P., Camberato, J.J., Albrecht, J.E. and Adams, J. (2003) Swine Manure Production and Nutrient Content. Chapter 3a. In: Confined Animal Manure Managers Certification Program Manual B Swine Version 3, Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service.

[41]   Diana, J. (2012) Some Principles of Pond Fertilization for Nile Tilapia Using Organic and Inorganic Inputs. In: Mischke, C.C., Ed., Aquaculture Pond Fertilization: Impacts of Nutrient Input on Production, 1st Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken.

[42]   Guedes, A.C. and Malcata, F.X. (2012) Nutritional Value and Uses of Microalgae in Aquaculture. In: Muchlisin, Z., Ed., Aquaculture, InTech.

[43]   Brown, C.L., Vera Cruz, E.M., Bolivar, R.B. and Borski, R.J. (2012) Chapter 3. Production, Growth, and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-I) Gene Expression as an Instantaneous Growth Indicator in Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.). In: Marco, S. and Liu, Z., Eds., Functional Genomics in Aquaculture, Wiley-Blackwell, Inc., Ames, 79-89.

[44]   Brown, M.R., Jeffrey, S.W., Volkman, J.K. and Dunstan, G.A. (1997) Nutritional Properties of Microalgae for Mariculture. Aquaculture, 151, 315-331.

[45]   Treece, G.D. (2000) Zooplankton Culture. In: Stickney, R.R., Ed., Encyclopedia of Aquaculture, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1037-1044.

[46]   Nash, C.E. (2011) The History of Aquaculture. Wiley Blackwell, Ames, Iowa.

[47]   Neori, A. (2011) “Green Water” Microalgae: The Leading Sector in Aquaculture. Journal of Applied Phycology, 23, 143-149.

[48]   Tendencia, E.A. and dela Peña, M. (2003) Investigation of Some Components of the Greenwater System Which Makes It Effective in the Initial Control of Luminous Bacteria. Aquaculture, 218, 115-119.

[49]   De Schryver, P., Defoirdt, T. and Sorgeloos, P. (2014) Early Mortality Syndrome Outbreaks: A Microbial Management Issue in Shrimp Farming? PLoS Pathogens, 10, e1003919.

[50]   io-Po, G.D., Leaño, E.M., Peñaranda, M.D., Villa-Franco, A.U., Sombito, C.D. and Guanzon Jr., N.G. (2005) Anti-Luminous Vibrio Factors Associated with the “Green Water” Grow-Out Culture of the Tiger Shrimp Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture, 250, 1-7.

[51]   FAO (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization) (1977) China: Recycling or Organic Wastes in Agriculture. Report of the FAO Study Tour to the People’s Republic of China, 28 April-24 May 1977. FAO Soils Bulletin 40.

[52]   Conte, F.S. (2000) Pond Fertilisation: Initiating an Algal Bloom. Western Regional Aquaculture Center, WRAC Publication No. 104 02-2000, Seattle.

[53]   Ayaad, E.A. and Hassouna, M.E. (2003) Response of Nile Tilapia to Dietary Animal Protein Level and Poultry Manure Fertilizer Level in Earthern Ponds. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, 7, 213-227.

[54]   Green, B.W. (1992) Substitution of Organic Manure for Pelleted Feed in Tilapia Production. Aquaculture, 101, 213-222.

[55]   Picchietti, M. (2104) Be Careful What You Wish For. Aquaculture Magazine, 70-73.

[56]   Edwards, P. (1985) Pigs over Fish-Ponds. Pig International, 15, 8-10.

[57]   FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) (1998) Guidance for Industry: Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables.

[58]   Charles, R. (2013) Organic Farmers Bash FDA Restrictions on Manure Use. NPR Morning Edition.

[59]   Changi, W.Y.B. and Ouyang, H. (1988) Dynamics of Dissolved Oxygen and Vertical Circulation in Fish Ponds. Aquaculture, 74, 263-276.

[60]   Netzfrauen (2014) Igitt—In Asienge züchtete Fische warden mittels Hühner—und Schweinekot aufgezogen.

[61]   FAO (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization) (1997) Towards Safe and Effective Use of Chemicals in Coastal Aquaculture. Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection, GESAMP Reports and Studies No. 65, FAO, Rome.

[62]   Weaver, K., Ivester, P., Chilton, J., Wilson, M., Pandey, P. and Chilton, F. (2008) The Content of Favorable and Unfavorable Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Found in Commonly Eaten Fish. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 108, 1178-1185.

[63]   Mozaffarian, D., Micha, R. and Wallace, S. (2010) Effects on Coronary Heart Disease of Increasing Polyunsaturated Fat in Place of Saturated Fat: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Control Trials. PLoS Medicine, 7, e1000252.

[64]   Cook, N.R., Cutler, J.A., Obarzanek, E., Buring, J.E., Rexrode, K.M., Kumanvika, S.K., Appel, L.J. and Whelton, P.K. (2007) Long Term Effects of Dietary Sodium Reduction on Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes: Observational Follow-up of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP). British Medical Journal, 334, 885-888.

[65]   Bush, S.R., Belton, B., Hall, D., Vandergeest, P., Murray, F.J., Ponte, S., Oosterveer, P., Islam, M.S., Mol, A.P.J., Hatanaka, M., Kruijssen, F., Ha, T.T.T., Little, D.C. and Kusumawati, R. (2013) Certify Sustainable Aquaculture? Science, 341, 1067-1068.

[66]   Monterey Bay Aquarium (2014) West Coast Consumer Guide. Seafood Watch.

[67] (2014) Do Not Eat Tilapia!

[68]   Greenpeace, U.K. (2012) What Fish Can I Eat?

[69]   Allsopp, M., Johnston, P. and Santillo, D. (2008) Challenging the Aquaculture Industry on Sustainability.

[70]   Allsopp, M., Santillo, D. and Dorey, C. (2013) Sustainability in Aquaculture: Present Problems and Sustainable Solutions. In: Chircop, A., Coffen-Smout, S. and McConnell, A., Eds., Ocean Yearbook 27, Sponsored by the International Oceans Institute and the Marine Environmental Law Institute of Dalhousie University, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden/Boston, 291-322.

[71]   Szeremeta, A., Winkler, L., Blake, F. and Lembo, P., Eds. (2010) Organic Aquaculture—EU Regulations (EC) 834/2007, (EC) 889/2008, (EC) 710/2009—Background, Assessment, Interpretation. International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) EU Group, Brussels, CIHEAM/IAMB, Valenzno, Bari.

[72]   Prein, M., Bergleiter, S., Ballauf, M., Brister, D., Halwart, M., Hongrat, K., Kahle, J., Lasner, T., Lem, A., Lev, O., Morrison, C., Shehadeh, Z., Stamer, A. and Wainberg, A.A. (2012) Organic Aquaculture: The Future of Expanding Niche Markets. In: Subasinghe, R.P., Arthur, J.R., Bartley, D.M., De Silva, S.S., Halwart, M., Hishamunda, N., Mohan, C.V. and Sorgeloos, P., Eds., Farming the Waters for People and Food. Proceedings of the Global Conference on Aquaculture 2010, Phuket, 22-25 September 2010, 549-567.

[73]   Soil Association (2014) Organic Standards, Aquaculture Revision 17.2.

[74]   NOSB (National Organic Standards Board) (2008) Final Recommendation Livestock Committee. Proposed Organic Aquaculture Standards: Fish Feed and Related Management Issues.

[75]   Burden, D. (2009) The Organic Aquaculture Quandary. Ag Marketing Resource Center/USDA.

[76]   Global Aquaculture Alliance (2014) Aquaculture Facility Certification Finfish and Crustacean Farms Best Aquaculture Practices Certification Standards, Guidelines.

[77]   Boyd, C.E. (2004) Farm-Level Issues in Aquaculture Certification: Tilapia. Report Commissioned by WWF.

[78]   Courtenay Jr., W.R. and Robins, C.P. (1973) Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Florida with Emphasis on Fishes: A Review and Recommendations. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 102, 1-12.<1:EAOIFW>2.0.CO;2

[79]   Legner, E.F. and Medved, R.A. (1973) Influence of Tilapia mossambica (Peters), T. zillii (Gervais) (Cichlidae), Molliensia latipinna le Sueur (Poeciliidae) on Pond Populations of Mosquitoes and Chironomid Midges. Mosquito News, 33, 354-364.

[80]   IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Species Survival Commission (2008) View 100 of the World’s Worst Invasive Alien Species. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

[81]   WWF (World Wildlife Fund) (2011) Better Management Practices for Tilapia Aquaculture: A Tool to Assist with Compliance to the International Standards for Responsible Tilapia Aquaculture. Version 1.0.

[82]   Aquaculture Stewardship Council (2012) ASC Tilapia Standard Version 1.0 Jan 2012.