Silicon carbide and silicon nitride are recognized as phases with very good mechanical properties. Many parts of machines and mechanical devices are made of these materials. Particulate composites basing on both mentioned phases have significant potential of properties improvement. The aim of presented work was to check the difference in wear behavior when materials surfaces were attacked by hard, loose particles in wet environment (pulp). Investigations were performed on silicon carbide, silicon nitride and two composites on their matrices. The basic performed test was the Miller Test according to ASTM Standard. The detail microstructural and mechanical characterization of investigated materials was done. Residual stress state caused by coefficients of thermal expansion mismatch was calculated using FEM approach. The second phases for composites were selected to introduce the compressive stress state into the matrix phase. Comparative studies of abrasive wear of “pure” phases and composites performed showed differences between dominating wear mechanisms. Tests results proved that the influence of the second phase presence in the materials was significant for the wear rate.