ENG  Vol.6 No.11 , October 2014
Meandering of Tributaries of the Tigris River Due to Mass Movements within Iraq
Abstract
Tigris and Euphrates are the main rivers in Iraq. The former has 5 main tributaries while the latter has no tributaries within Iraq. All these rivers exhibit meandering and/or shifting of their courses due to many reasons; such as mass movements and alluvial fan's development. The meandering and shifting of river courses due to mass movements is dealt with in this study. Many examples are given from different parts of Iraq within different rivers and streams. In each case, the geology of the involved area is described; the reasons of the shifting and/or meandering of the river course are given. GIS technique was used to determine the coverage of the involved area. Landsat, Google Earth and DEM images were used to indicate the suffered areas from shifting and meandering of the rivers and streams. When possible, age of the shifting and/or meandering of the river and stream courses was estimated; using exposure age determination; mainly depending on the presence of river terraces, erosional forms, vegetation cover and the maturity of the involved area. Some of the given examples of shifting of river courses were found to be still active; others are inactive. In many cases, indications for very large mass movement phenomena were seen. Moreover, some of the large involved areas are highly populated, others includes few houses and/ or farms. The majority of the meanders are developed due to mass movement phenomena; others are caused by alluvial fans and/or tectonic features, lime plunging of anticlines.

Cite this paper
Sissakian, V. , Jab’bar, M. , Al-Ansari, N. and Knutsson, S. (2014) Meandering of Tributaries of the Tigris River Due to Mass Movements within Iraq. Engineering, 6, 712-730. doi: 10.4236/eng.2014.611070.
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