MR  Vol.2 No.4 , October 2014
Comparison of Chemical Elements on Carious & Normal Premolar’s Enamel Layers Using Energy Dispersive X Ray Spectrometer (X Ray-EDS)
Abstract: Objectives: To compare the distribution of chemical elements among the carious and normal enamel layers on teenagers, using energy dispersive X ray spectrometer (EDS Rx). Materials and Methods: The EDS Rx analyzer is integrated to scanner electron microscope. The macro and mi-croelements were made in 30 premolars of teenager: 14 carious enamel layers and 16 normal enamel layers. Results: The quantitative and qualitative microanalyses of macro and microele-ments were found between the enamel layers of carious and normal premolar in term of variation and concentration expressed in percentage atomic weight. The statistical data analysis of ANOVA showed that the macroelements [C, Ca, P] and the microelements [Al, Cl, Mg, Na] were significantly different (P < 0.05) while, the macro [O] and the microelements [In, Si, W, S] were not significantly different (P < 0.05) among the carious and normal enamel layers. Moreover, the microelements Sb, Ba, Br, I, Ir, K, Pt, Sc, Sr, Sn and Yb were absent in carious enamel layers and present in normal enamel layers. Conclusion: The macro and microelements differ in composition and variation from the external to the internal enamel layers between the carious and the normal premolars. However, the deficiency or excess of these elements in the enamel layers determines the degree of susceptibility to carious and other dental disease. Clinical Relevance: The carious enamel in dental structure could be a major dental problem due to the deficiency or excess of macro and microele-ments which are responsible for secondary or recurrent caries, discoloration, pulpal inflammation, re-infection, abscess in jaw bone and dental disease.
Cite this paper: Ortiz, A. , Briano, M. , Esparza, M. and Juárez, J. (2014) Comparison of Chemical Elements on Carious & Normal Premolar’s Enamel Layers Using Energy Dispersive X Ray Spectrometer (X Ray-EDS). Microscopy Research, 2, 81-91. doi: 10.4236/mr.2014.24010.

[1]   Gomez, M.E.F. and Campos, A.R. (2009) Histologia y Embriología bucodental. 3a Edición, Editorial Panamericana, Buenos Aires, 274-301, 468.

[2]   Ten Cate, A. (1985) Histología Oral. Desarrollo estructura y función. 2o Edición, Médica Panamericana, Buenos Aires, 65-79.

[3]   Barrancos Mooney, L. (1999) Operatoria Dental. Tercera Edición, Editorial Panamericana, Buenos Aires.

[4]   Daming, F., Du, Ch., Sun, Z., Lakshminarayanan, R. and Moradian, O.J. (2009) In Vitro Study on the Interaction between the 32 kDa Enamelin and Amelogenin. Journal of Structural Biology, 166, 88-94.

[5]   Kaczmarek, E., Brzozowska, T.M. and Mi?kowiak, B. (2003) Digital Image Analysis in Dental Research Applied for Treatment of Fissures on Occlusal Surfaces of Premolars. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 31, 931-936.

[6]   Rao, A. (2008) Principles and Practice of Pedodontics. 2nd Edition, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, 163-182.

[7]   Wen, S.L. (1989) Human Enamel Structure Studied by High Resolution Electron Microscopy. Electron Microscopy Reviews, 2, 1-16.

[8]   Fathilah, A.R. and Rahim, Z.H.A. (2008) The Effect of Beverages on the Release of Calcium from the Enamel Surface. Annals of Dentistry University of Malaya, 15, 1-4.

[9]   Canizares, F.J., Peso, L.J., Sánchez Quevedo, M.C. and Campos, A. (1987) Microscopia electrónica de barrido de la lesión cariosa incipiente del esmalte dental. Histología Médica, 3, 73-78.

[10]   Silverstone, L.M. and Poole, D.F. (1968) Modification of the Histological Appearance of Enamel Caries after Exposure to Saliva and a Calcifying Fluid. Caries Research, 2, 87-96.

[11]   Curzon, M.E.J., Spector, P.C., Losee, F.L. and McHugh, W.D. (1976) Trace Elements and Dental Caries. Variation of Strontium Content of Surface Enamel with Geography, Age and Caries. Eastman Dental Center, Rochester, 22 p.

[12]   Mansson, A.B. and Whitford, G.M. (1984) Flouride Concentration in the Surface Tooth Enamel of Young Men and Women. Caries Research, 16, 334-339.

[13]   Dykstra, M.J. and Reuss, L. (2003) Biological Electron Microscopy: Theory, Techniques and Troubleshooting. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York.

[14]   Goldstein, J.I., Newbury, D.E., Echlin, P., Joy, D.C., Roming Jr., A.D., Lyman, C.E., Fiori, C. and Lifshin, E. (1992) Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, Chapter II. Plenum Press, New York.

[15]   Chew, A., David, E.S. and Waddilove, A.E. (1997) Surface Characterization of Laser Modified Human Tooth Enamel Using Laser Microprobe Mass Spectrometry and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 12, 1101-1103.

[16]   Glauche, V., R?hrich, J., Bohne, W., Radlanski, R.J., Atar, M., Honda, Y., Yoshida, W., Maeda, H. and Finke, C.H. (2011) Analysis of Tooth Surface Elements by Ion Beam Analysis. Journal of Hard Tissue Biology, 20, 99-106.

[17]   Bhattacherjee, B. and Sarkar, S. (1999) Trace Elements in Enamel of Sound Primary and Permanent Teeth. Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, 17, 113-117.

[18]   Szostek, K. and G??b, H. (2001) Trace Elements Concentrations in Human Teeth from a Neolithic Common Grave at Nakonowo (Central Poland). Variability and Evolution, 9, 51-59.

[19]   Falla-Sotelo, F.O., Rizzuto, M.A., Tabacnicks, M.H., Added, N. and Barbosa, M.D.L. (2005) Analysis and Discussion of Trace Elements in Teeth of Different Animal Species. Brazilian Journal of Physics, 35, 761-762.

[20]   Anjos, M.J., Barroso, R.C., Pérez, C.A., Braz, D., Moreira, S., Dias, K.R.H.C. and Lopes, R.T. (2004) Elemental Mapping of Teeth Using MU-SRXRF. Proceedings of the 5th International Topical Meeting on Industrial Radiation and Radioisotope Measurement Applications, Bologna, 9-14 June 2002, 569-573.

[21]   Markarian, R.A., Quinelato, M.A.M. and Youssef, M. (2005) Analysis and Discussion of Trace Elements in Teeth of Different Animal Species. Brazilian Journal of Physics, 35, 761.

[22]   Heijs, S.C., Dietz, W., Norén, J.G., Blanksma, N.G. and J?levik, B. (2007) Morphology and Chemical Composition of Dentin in Permanent First Molars with the Diagnose MIH. Swedish Dental Journal, 31, 155-164.

[23]   Zaichick, V. (2009) Neutron Activation Analysis of Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, and Sr Contents in the Crowns of Human Permanent Teeth. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 281, 41-45.

[24]   Zenóbio, M.A.F., Tavares, M.S.N., Zenóbio, E.G. and Silva, T.A. (2011) Elemental Composition of Dental Biologic Tissue: Study by Means of Different Analytical Technique. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 289, 161-166.

[25]   Weatherell, J.A. (2001) Composition of Dental Enamel. Oxford Journal Medicine, 31, 115.

[26]   Silverstone, L.M. (1977) Remineralization Phenomena. Caries Research, 11, 59-84.

[27]   Robinson, C., Hallsworth, A.S. and Kirkham, J. (1984) Distribution and Uptake of Magnesium by Developing Deciduous Bovine Incisor Enamel. Archives of Oral Biology, 29, 479-482.

[28]   Larsen, M.J. and Fejerskov, O. (1989) Chemical and Structural Challenges in Remineralization of Dental Enamel Lesions. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research, 97, 285-296.

[29]   Sarkar, S. and Roychoudhary, P. (2004) Leach Out of Inorganic and Trace Elements at the Time of Etching. Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, 22, 76-81.

[30]   Yamazaki, H. and Margolis, H.C. (2008) Enhanced Enamel Remineralization under Acidic Condition in Vitro. Journal of Dental Research, 87, 569-574.

[31]   Zhang, L.L., Li, J.Y., Zhou, X.D., Cui, F.Z. and Wei, L. (2009) Chemical and Crystallographic Study of Remineralized Surface on Initial Carious Enamel Treated with Galla Chinensis. Scanning, 31, 236-245.

[32]   Swain, M.I.V. and Xue, J. (2009) State of the Art of Micro-CT Applications in Dental Research. International Journal of Oral Science, 1, 177-188.

[33]   Pamukcu, G.E., Mehmet, E.Y., Fikrettin, S.M.M., Yazic, A.A. and Rizvanov, G.B. (2011) Effect of Dental Materials Calcium Hydroxide-Containing Cement, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Enamel Matrix Derivative on Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Tooth Germ Stem Cells. Journal of Endodontics, 37, 650-656.

[34]   Bodier, H.P., Stuer, P., Meyer, J.M., Bigerard, L. and Cuisiner, F.J. (2000) High-Resolution Electron Ion Microscopic Study of the Relationship between Human Enamel and Dentin Crystals at de Dentin Enamel Junction. Cell and Tissue Research, 301, 389-395.

[35]   Yavenes, I. (1995) Study of the Concentration and Stability of Dental Topical Fluorides. Journal of Dental Research, 74, 901.

[36]   Riyat, M. and Sharma, D.C. (2009) Analysis of 35 Inorganic Elements in Teeth in Relation to Caries Formation. Biological Trace Element Research, 129, 126-129.

[37]   Lara, M.V.Z., Machado, M.P., Vaz, R.R. and Mota, J.M.L.F. (2004) Comparison of Cervical Adaptation in Class II Aesthetic and Metallic Restorations: Dental Materials-FOUFMG-Belo Horizonte. Journal of Applied Oral Science, 12.

[38]   Drea, W.S. (1935) Spectral Analysis of Dental Tissue for Trace Elements. Journal of Dental Research, 15, 403-406.

[39]   Shashikiran, N.D., Subba Reddy, V.V. and Hiremath, M.C. (2007) Estimation of Trace Elements in Sound and Carious Enamel of Primary and Permanent Teeth by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry: An in Vitro Study. Indian Journal of Dental Research, 18, 157-162.

[40]   Lowater, F. and Margaret, M.M. (1937) Chemical Composition of Teeth: Spectographic Analysis. British Dental Journal, 61, 837-841.

[41]   Sendur, A. (1998) Magnesium Content in the Hard Dental Tissues. Czasopismo Stomatologiczne, 51, 785-790.

[42]   Grzegorz, A.P., Gutowska, B.I., Machoya, S.Z. and Gutowska, M.P. (2009) Changes in Mineral Composition of Human Primary Dentition. Research Report Fluoride, 42, 23-28.

[43]   Borggreven, J.M.P.M., Driessens, F.C.M. and Van Dijk, J.W.E. (1986) Dissolution and Precipitation Reactions in Human Tooth Enamel under Weak Acid Conditions. Archives of Oral Biology, 31, 139-144.

[44]   Imfeld, T. (1996) Dental Erosion Definition, Classification and Links. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 104, 151- 155.

[45]   Moss, S.J. (1988) Dental Erosion. International Dental Journal, 48, 529-539.

[46]   Cole, A.S., Eastoe, J.E., McGivan, J., Hayes, M.I. and Smillie, A.C. (1988) Biochemistry and Oral Biology. 2nd Edition, Wright, Britain.

[47]   Frysh, H. (1995) Chemistry of Bleaching. In: Goldstein, R.E. and Garber, D.A., Eds., Complete Dental Bleaching, Quintessence Book, Chicago, 25-32.

[48]   Gontijo, L., Almeida, C.R. and Gomes, B.P.B. (2007) Dental Enamel Around Fixed Orthodontic Appliances after Fluoride Varnish Application. Brazilian Dental Journal, 18, 49-53.

[49]   Daculsi, G., Bouler, J.-M. and LeGeros, R.Z. (1997) Adaptative Crystal Formation in Normal and Pathological Calcifications in Synthetic Calcium Phosphate and Related Biomaterials. International Review of Cytology, 172, 129-191.

[50]   Alejandro, F.A., Romo, C.D.S., Perez, R.M.J., Solano, V.G., Flores, A.J.C., Gaitán F.C.A., Reyes, V.E., Yusa, C. and Mazuoka, I.D. (2012) Comparación de técnicas fotopolimerización para disminuir la contracción de las resinas compuestas. Luz Médica. Universidad Autonóma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias de la Salud, Departamento de Estomatología, Cd Universitaria, Aguascalientes, 11.

[51]   Jackson III, G.H., Chem, B.S. and Law, J.D. (1991) Quantitative Analysis of Hg, Ag, Sn, Cu, Zn and Trace Elements in Amalgam Removed from an Abutment Tooth Underneath a Gold Alloy Bridge That Had Been in Vivo for Nine Plus Years. Experientia, 47, 9-22.

[52]   Santana, T.D. and Vasconcelos, J.K.O.S. (2004) Etiologic Factors Reported to Dental Sensitivity Happens in Adhesive Aesthetic Dentistry. Journal of Applied Oral Science, 12.