OJPsych  Vol.4 No.4 , October 2014
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults with High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Japan
ABSTRACT
Aims: This study was designed to verify the proportion of Japanese adults with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) who met the diagnostic criteria (other than E) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Furthermore, we examined to what extent adults with PDD think that they exhibit ADHD symptoms. Methods: We developed an original Japanese self-report questionnaire to determine the presence or absence of 18 symptoms from the diagnostic criteria for ADHD in the DSM-IV-TR. We administered the questionnaire to 64 adults with high-functioning PDD (45 men and 19 women) and 21 adults with ADHD (10 men and 11 women), aged 18 to 59 years, with a full-scale intelligence quotient ≥75. Target patients were evaluated for ADHD by their psychiatrists. Results: Twenty-nine (45.3%) adults with PDD also had ADHD. The percentage of these adults who had over six perceived inattention symptoms from the DSM-IV-TR was 96.6%. The percentage of these adults who had over six perceived hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms was 65.5%. Thirty-five (55.6%) adults with PDD responded that they were aware of having ADHD symptoms at the level of the relevant diagnostic criteria. Conclusions: The present study is the first to examine the frequency of objective and perceived ADHD symptoms in adults with PDD in Japan. Our results show that both objective and perceived ADHD symptoms frequently appear in a large number of adults with PDD. This suggests that it is necessary to attend to concomitant ADHD symptoms in the medical care of adults with PDD.

Cite this paper
Takanashi, Y. , Mashiko, H. , Yokokawa, H. , Kawasaki, Y. , Itagaki, S. , Ishikawa, H. , Miyashita, N. , Hayashi, Y. , Kudo, A. , Oga, K. , Matsuura, R. , Niwa, S. (2014) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults with High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Japan. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 4, 372-380. doi: 10.4236/ojpsych.2014.44043.
References
[1]   American Psychiatric Association (2013) The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM 5. 5th Edition, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.910646

[2]   American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890423349

[3]   Gadow, K.D., DeVincent, C.J. and Pomeroy, J. (2006) ADHD Symptom Subtypes in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 271-283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-005-0060-3

[4]   Goldstein, S. and Schwebach, A.J. (2004) The Comorbidity of Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Results of a Retrospective Chart Review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 329-339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:JADD.0000029554.46570.68

[5]   Lee, D.O. and Ousley, O.Y. (2006) Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in a Clinic Sample of Children and Adolescents with Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 16, 737-746. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2006.16.737

[6]   Yoshida, Y. and Uchiyama, T. (2004) The Clinical Necessity for Assessing Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) Symptoms in Children with High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 13, 307-314.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00787-004-0391-1

[7]   Hofvander, B., Delorme, R., Chaste, P., Nyden, A., Wentz, E., Stahlberg, O., et al. (2009) Psychiatric and Psychosocial Problems in Adults with Normal-Intelligence Autism Spectrum Disorders. BMC Psych-
iatry, 9, 35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-9-35

[8]   Anckarsa, H., Stahlberg, O., Larson, T., Hakansson, C., Jutblad, S.-B., Niklasson, L., et al. (2006) The Impact of ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorders on Temperament, Character, and Personality Development. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1239-1244.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.163.7.1239

[9]   Rydén, E. and Bejerot, S. (2008) Autism Spectrum Disorders in an Adult Psychiatric Population. A Naturalistic Cross-Sectional Controlled Study. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 5, 13-21.
http://www.clinicalneuropsychiatry.org/pdf/03_ryden.pdf

[10]   Stahlberg, O., Soderstrom, H., Rastam, M. and Gillberg, C. (2004) Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, and Other Psychotic Disorders in Adults with Childhood Onset AD/HD and/or Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Neural Transmission, 111, 891-902. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00702-004-0115-1

[11]   Barkley, R.A., Fischer, M., Smallish, L. and Fletcher, K. (2006) Young Adult Outcome of Hyperactive Children: Adaptive Functioning in Major Life Activities. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 192-202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000189134.97436.e2

[12]   Fayyad, J., De Graaf, R., Kessler, R., Alonso, J., Angermeyer, M., Demyttenaere, K., et al. (2007) Cross-National Prevalence and Correlates of Adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 402-409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.106.034389

[13]   Holtmann, M., Boelte, S. and Poustka, F. (2007) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Association with Autistic Behavior Domains and Coexisting Psychopathology. Psychopathology, 40, 172-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000100007

[14]   Gillberg, C. (2002) A Guide to Asperger Syndrome. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511543814

[15]   Di Martino, A., Melis, G., Cianchetti, C. and Zuddas, A. (2004) Methylphenidate for Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Safety and Efficacy of Acute Single Dose Test and Ongoing Therapy: An Open-Pilot Study. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 14, 207-218.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/1044546041649011

[16]   Posey, D.J., Aman, M.G., McCracken, J.T., Scahill, L., Tierney, E., Arnold, L.E., et al. (2007) Positive Effects of Methylphenidate on Inattention and Hyperactivity in Pervasive Developmental Disorders: An Analysis of Secondary Measures. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 538-544.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.09.028

[17]   Posey, D.J., Wiegand, R.E., Wilkerson, J., Maynard, M., Stigler, K.A. and McDougle, C.J. (2006) Open-Label Atomoxetine for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Associated with High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacolo-
gy, 16, 599-610. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2006.16.599

[18]   Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network (2005) Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Trial of Methylphenidate in Pervasive Developmental Disorders with Hyperactivity. JAMA Psychiatry, 62, 1266-1274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.62.11.1266

[19]   Troost, P.W., Steenhuis, M.P., Tuynman Qua, H.G., Kalverdijk, L.J., Buitelaar, J.K., Minderaa, R.B. and Hoekstra, P.J. (2006) Atomoxetine for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Pilot Study. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 16, 611-619. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2006.16.611

[20]   Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., Meldrum, D. and Charman, T. (2006) Prevalence of Disorders of the Autism Spectrum in a Population Cohort of Children in South Thames: The Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP). The Lancet, 368, 210-215.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69041-7

[21]   Fombonne, E., Zakarian, R., Bennett, A., Meng, L. and McLean-Heywood, D. (2006) Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Prevalence and Links with Immunizations. Pediatrics, 118, e139-e150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-2993

[22]   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007) Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders—Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 Sites, United States, 2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 56, 12-22. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5601a2.htm

 
 
Top