OJSS  Vol.4 No.10 , October 2014
Ecophysiological Effects of Nitrogen on Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]
ABSTRACT
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a leguminous plant with high nutritional and medicinal value. The goal of this research was to determine the optimal concentration of nitrogen, using Hoagland nutrient solution, which will enhance the productivity of soybeans. The specific objective of the study was to assess the effect of variation of nitrogen concentration on soybean growth and leaf chlorophyll concentrations. Soybeans were grown under three soil nitrogen amendments: low, medium, and high concentration of Hoagland nutrient solution and a control group. Soybeans were grown under controlled environmental conditions in the Biotronette? environmental chamber. Temperature of the environmental chamber was regulated at 27 and the photoperiod was set to 10 L: 14D. Soybeans grown in the low treatment group had the highest growth rate (1.03 ± 0.03 cm/day) compared to the control, medium, and high treatment groups. During the first chlorophyll analyses, the control group had the highest total chlorophyll concentration (216.25 ± 4.09 μg/mL/g). During the second chlorophyll analyses, the low treatment group had the highest total chlorophyll concentration (102.81 ± 14.54 μg/mL/g). Although no finding was statistically significant between groups, the low nitrogen treatment conditions had a trend towards producing more favorable physiological outcomes on soybeans.

Cite this paper
Onor, I. , Onor Junior, G. and Kambhampati, M. (2014) Ecophysiological Effects of Nitrogen on Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Open Journal of Soil Science, 4, 357-365. doi: 10.4236/ojss.2014.410036.
References
[1]   Barnes, S. (2010) The Biochemistry, Chemistry and Physiology of the Isoflavones in Soybeans and Their Food Products. Lymphatic Research and Biology, 8, 89-98.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lrb.2009.0030

[2]   Messina, M.J. (1999) Legumes and Soybeans: Overview of Their Nutritional Profiles and Health Effects. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 439S-450S.

[3]   Kim, M.Y., Van, K., Kang, Y.J., Kim, K.H. and Lee, S.H. (2012) Tracing Soybean Domestication History: From Nucleotide to Genome. Breeding Science, 61, 445-452.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.61.445

[4]   Velasquez, M.T. and Bhathena, S.J. (2007) Role of Dietary Soy Protein in Obesity. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 4, 72-82.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.4.72

[5]   Anderson, J.W., Smith, B.M. and Washnock, C.S. (1999) Cardiovascular and Renal Benefits of Dry Bean and Soybean Intake. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 464S-474S.

[6]   Slavin, J. (1991) Nutritional Benefits of Soy Protein and Soy Fiber. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 91, 816-819.

[7]   Friedman, M. and Brandon, D.L. (2001) Nutritional and Health Benefits of Soy Proteins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, 1069-1086.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0009246

[8]   Kenny, A.M., Mangano, K.M., Abourizk, R.H., Bruno, R., Anamani, D.E., Kleppinger, A., Walsh, S.J., Prestwood, K.M. and Kerstetter, J.E. (2009) Soy Proteins and Isoflavones Affect Bone Mineral Density in Older Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90, 234-242.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.27600

[9]   Ho, S.C., Woo, J., Lam, S., Chen, Y., Sham, A. and Lau, J. (2003) Soy Protein Consumption and Bone Mass in Early Postmenopausal Chinese Women. Osteoporosis International, 14, 835-842.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00198-003-1453-9

[10]   Umpierrez, G.E., Spiegelman, R., Zhao, V., Smiley, D.D., Pinzon, I., Griffith, D.P., Peng, L., Morris, T., Luo, M., Garcia, H., Thomas, C., Newton, C.A. and Ziegler, T.R. (2012) A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Soybean Oil-Based versus Olive Oil-Based Lipid Emulsions in Adult Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients Requiring Parenteral Nutrition. Critical Care Medicine, 40, 1792-1798.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182474bf9

[11]   Kraiser, T., Gras, D.E., Gutiérrez, A.G., González, B. and Gutierrez, R.A. (2011) A Holistic View of Nitrogen Acquisition in Plants. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62, 1455-1466.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erq425

[12]   Gutiérrez, R.A. (2012) Systems Biology for Enhanced Plant Nitrogen Nutrition. Science, 336, 1673-1675.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1217620

[13]   White, P.J. and Brown, P.H. (2010) Plant Nutrition for Sustainable Development and Global Health. Annals of Botany, 105, 1073-1080.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcq085

[14]   de Veau, E.J., Robinson, J.M., Warmbrodt, R.D. and van Berkum, P. (1990) Photosynthesis and Photosynthate Partitioning in N2-Fixing Soybeans. Plant Physiology, 94, 259-267.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.94.1.259

[15]   Albrecht, S.L., Maier, R.J., Hanus, F.J., Russell, S.A., Emerich, D.W. and Evans, H.J. (1979) Hydrogenase in Rhizobium japonicum Increases Nitrogen Fixation by Nodulated Soybeans. Science, 203, 1255-1257.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.203.4386.1255

[16]   Abu-Shakra, S.S., Phillips, D.A. and Huffaker, R.C. (1978) Nitrogen Fixation and Delayed Leaf Senescence in Soybeans. Science, 199, 973-975.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.199.4332.973

[17]   Hennecke, H. (1990) Nitrogen Fixation Genes Involved in the Bradyrhizobium japonicum-Soybean Symbiosis. FEBS Letters, 268, 422-426.

[18]   Wych, R.D. and Rains, D.W. (1978) Simultaneous Measurement of Nitrogen Fixation Estimated by Acetylene-Ethy-lene Assay and Nitrate Absorption by Soybeans. Plant Physiology, 62, 443-448.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.62.3.443

[19]   Kaschuk, G., Hungria, M., Leffelaar, P. A., Giller, K.E. and Kuyper, T.W. (2010) Differences in Photosynthetic Behaviour and Leaf Senescence of Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill) Dependent on N2 Fixation or Nitrate Supply. Plant Biology, 12, 60-69.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1438-8677.2009.00211.x

[20]   Sabaratnam, S., Gupta, G. and Mulchi, C. (1988) Effects of Nitrogen Dioxide on Leaf Chlorophyll and Nitrogen Content of Soybean. Environmental Pollution, 51, 113-120.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0269-7491(88)90200-X

[21]   Sabaratnam, S. and Gupta, G. (1988) Effects of Nitrogen Dioxide on Biochemical and Physiological Characteristics of Soybean. Environmental Pollution, 55, 149-158.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0269-7491(88)90125-X

[22]   Hoagland, D.R. and Arnon, D.I. (1950) The Water-Culture Method for Growing Plants without Soil. Circular & California Agricultural Experiment Station, 347, 32.

[23]   Devlin, P.F. and Kay, S.A. (2000) Flower Arranging in Arabidopsis. Science, 288, 1600-1602.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.288.5471.1600

[24]   Einhellig, F.A. and Rasmussen, J.A. (1979) Effects of Three Phenolic Acids on Chlorophyll Content and Growth of Soybean and Grain Sorghum Seedlings. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 5, 815-824.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00986566

[25]   Ryle, G. and Hesketh, J. (1969) Carbon Dioxide Uptake in Nitrogen-Deficient Plants. Crop Science, 9, 451-454.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1969.0011183X000900040019x

[26]   Falkowski, P.G., Sukenik, A. and Herzig, R. (1989) Nitrogen Limitation in Isochrysis galbana (Haptophyceae). II. Relative Abundance of Chloroplast Proteins. Journal of Phycology, 25, 471-478.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.1989.tb00252.x

 
 
Top