OJPM  Vol.1 No.1 , May 2011
Counting Steps in Research: A Comparison of Accelerometry and Pedometry
ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the step count functions in Actical accelerometers and activPAL inclinometers, compared with pedome-ter-derived step count data. Firstly, directly observed step counts over 3 treadmill speeds were compared with steps collected from 3 pedometers, accelerometers, and inclinometers in 10 adults. Secondly, step count data were derived from 22 participants who wore a pedome-ter, accelerometer, and inclinometer over 48 hours. Agreement between measurement tools was determined. All monitors appropriately measured steps in the labo-ratory conditions. In free living conditions, the mean percentage differences with pedometer-determined step counts were -7.3% and 7.0% for the Actical and ac-tivPAL monitors, respectively. With the exception of slow walking for the Actical units (ICC < 0.001), acceptable reliability was found within units for all treadmill speeds, and across units during the free living condition. The 95% prediction interval ranges were wide, ranging from -68.8% to 54.2% for the Acticals, and from -39.1% to 53.2% for the activPALs. Step counts gathered from Actical and activPAL units should not be used interchangeably with pedometer-derived step count data.

Cite this paper
nullOliver, M. , Badland, H. , Shepherd, J. and Schofield, G. (2011) Counting Steps in Research: A Comparison of Accelerometry and Pedometry. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 1, 1-7. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2011.11001.
References
[1]   [1] Tudor-Locke, C., Ainsworth, B.E., Whitt, M.C., Thompson, R.W., Addy, C.L. and Jones, D.A. (2001) The relationship between pedometer-determined ambulatory activity and body composition variables. International Journal of Obesity, 25, 1571-1578. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801783

[2]   [2] Bravata, D.M., Smith-Spangler, C., Sundaram, V., Gienger, A.L., Lin, N., Lewis, R., et al. (2007) Using pedometers to increase physical activity and improve health. A systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298, 2296-2304. doi:10.1001/jama.298.19.2296

[3]   [3] Heil, D.P. (2006) Predicting activity energy expenditure using the Actical? activity monitor. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 77, 64-80.

[4]   [4] Esliger, D.W., Probert, A., Gorber, S.C., Bryan, S., Laviolette, M. and Tremblay, M.S. (2007) Validity of the Actical accelerometer step-count function. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39, 1200-1204. doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e3804ec4e9

[5]   [5] Grant, P.M., Ryan, C.G., Tigbe, W.W. and Granat, M.H. (2006) The validation of a novel activity monitor in the measurement of posture and motion during everyday activities British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40, 992- 997. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2006.030262

[6]   [6] Busse, M.E., van Deursen, R.W. and Wiles, C.M. (2009) Real- life step and activity measurement: Reliability and validity. Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology, 33, 33-41. doi:10.1080/03091900701682606

[7]   [7] Godfrey, A., Culhane, K.M. and Lyons, G.M. (2007) Comparison of the performance of the activPAL? Professional physical activity logger to a discrete accelerometer-based activity monitor. Medical Engineering & Physics, 29, 930-934. doi:10.1016/j.medengphy.2006.10.001

[8]   [8] Ryan, C.G., Grant, P.M., Tigbe, W.W. and Granat, M.H. (2006) The validity and reliability of a novel activity monitor as a measure of walking. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40, 779-784. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2006.027276

[9]   [9] Maddocks, M., Petrou, A., Skipper, L. and Wilcock, A. (2008) Validity of three accelerometers during treadmill walking and motor vehicle travel. British Journal of Sports Medicine, Online First, doi:10.1136/bjsm.2008.051128

[10]   [10] Oliver, M., Badland, H.M., Schofield, G.M. and Shepherd, J. (in press) Identification of non-wear time and sedentary behavior using accelerometry. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport.

[11]   [11] Oliver, M., Schofield, G.M., Badland, H.M. and Shepherd, J. (2010) Utility of accelerometer thresholds for classifying sitting in office workers. Preventive Medicine, 51, 357- 360. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.08.010

[12]   [12] Crouter, S.E., Schneider, P.L., Karabulut, M. and Bassett, D.R., Jr. (2003) Validity of 10 electronic pedometers for measuring steps, distance, and energy cost. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 35, 1455-1460. doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000078932.61440.A2

[13]   [13] Le Masurier, G.C., Lee, S.M. and Tudor-Locke, C. (2004) Motion sensor accuracy under controlled and free-living conditions. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 36, 905-910. doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000126777.50188.73

[14]   [14] Bland, J.M. and Altman, D.G. (1999) Measuring agreement in method comparison studies. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 8, 135-160. doi:10.1191/096228099673819272

[15]   [15] Bland, J.M. and Altman, D.G. (2003) Applying the right statistics: Analyses of measurement studies. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 22, 85-93. doi:10.1002/uog.122

[16]   [16] Brown, M.B. and Forsythe, A.B. (1974) Robust tests for equality of variances. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 69, 364-367. doi:10.2307/2285659

[17]   [17] Tudor-Locke, C., Giles-Corti, B., Knuiman, M. and McCormack, G. (2008) Tracking of pedometer-determined physical activity in adults who relocate: Results from RESIDE. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5, doi:10.1186/1479-5868-5-39

[18]   [18] Tudor-Locke, C.E. and Myers, A.M. (2001) Methodological considerations for researchers and practitioners using pedometers to measure physical (ambulatory) activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 72, 1-12.

[19]   [19] Tudor-Locke, C., Myers, A.M., Bell, R.C., Harris, S.B. and Rodger, N.W. (2002) Preliminary outcome evaluation of the First Step Program: a daily physical activity intervention for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Patient Education and Counseling, 47, 23-28. doi:10.1016/S0738-3991(01)00169-0

[20]   [20] Tudor-Locke, C. and Bassett Jr, D.R. (2004) How many steps/ day are enough? Preliminary pedometer indices for public health. Sports Medicine, 34, 1-8. doi:10.2165/00007256-200434010-00001

[21]   [21] Crouter, S.E., Schneider, P.L. and Bassett, D.R. (2005) Spring-Levered versus Piezo-Electric Pedometer Accuracy in Overweight and Obese Adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 37, 1673-1679. doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000181677.36658.a8

[22]   [22] Levine, J.A., McCrady, S.K., Lanningham-Foster, L.M., Kane, P.H., Foster, R.C. and Manohar, C.U. (2008) The role of free-living daily walking in human weight gain and obesity. Diabetes, 57, 548-554. doi:10.2337/db07-0815

 
 
Top